Prosperity Party and the New Emerging Political Thinking on Ethnic Identity and Nation Building in Ethiopia
By: Dr. Teshome Adugna
In Ethiopia also for the first time the political party was established after the failure of the Monarchy government. Since early 1970s different national and regional ethnic political parties were formed to realize their political and economic goals. The first legal act which guaranteed Ethiopian citizens the right to take part in political activities and to organize political parties was issued by the 1991 Transitional Charter of the then Transitional Government of Ethiopia (TGE)
There is great different in political thinking on nation building and nationality across the major political parties and regimes. Monarchy government focus only on nation building than ethnic identity right, EPRDF emphasis on the national oppression thesis and OLF stress on colonization of nation. Such deep and diverse political differences between political parties and regimes has hindered the effective contribution of ethnic identity and nation building in peace and stability.
Alon Ben-Meir - January 14, 2020
Stepping Back From the Brink of War
Trump’s order to kill General Soleimani is one of the most reckless acts taken by a president, who once again has put his personal political interest above the nation’s security. Certainly, Soleimani deserved to meet his bitter fate. He was behind the killing of hundreds of American soldiers in Iraq while threatening and acting against American allies. However, killing him without considering the potentially dire regional repercussions and without a strategy, under the guise of national security concerns, is hard to
Establishment of the Federalist Democratic Forum:
Beyond the Unitary Geographic Federation and the Defeatist Secessionist Strategy Ghelawdewos Araia, PhD January 2, 2020
While the Government of Abiy Ahmed took constructive initiatives but contradicted itself by conducting bizarre actions, as noted above, it is its latter overall operations that made the Ethiopian people suspicious of the behavior of the Government, and this unique phenomenon inadvertently compelled the federalist forces to come together and hold two successful conferences at Mekelle that consequently resulted in the formation of the Forum. Now, it looks a centrifugal group rallied around the PP and a centripetal force organized under the umbrella of the Forum will decide the fate of Ethiopia in terms of either leading toward a unitary state or maintaining and preserving the already established federal structure and the existing constitution.
Alon Ben-Meir - December 19, 2019
2020 Will Be More Turbulent Than 2019, Unless…
Unless some drastic measures are taken, the various conflicts in the Middle East will become ever more intractable and exact a horrifying toll in blood and massive economic dislocation. The continuing severity of these crises and their repercussions will depend on whether or not the combatants assume a realistic posture, or new leadership rise and commit to finding equitable solutions that can endure. We must keep in mind though that the turmoil we experienced in 2019 may further intensify in 2020 because of the continuing global crisis of leadership and the challenges posed to the global order that was established in the wake of World War II. The following brief review of seven Mideast conflicts reflects these developments and raises the question as to what must be done to change the dynamics in the hope of solving some of these conflicts.
Youth Entrepreneurship in Community
by Dr. Yossef Ben-Meir
Moroccan youth today, whether urban or rural based, face enormous obstacles in achieving their self-development and in creating the improvements they seek for their families, communities, country, and even for the world.
As they know all too well, they are confronted with the statistical reality which confirms the more educational credits they have, the more their income expectation is proportionately diminished. The higher the level of education results in fewer employment options available for them to consider. The backdrop of having little faith in the social system, its sense of fair play, clouds the real freedom available to join cooperatives, to form businesses their aspirations mirror, and to envision more rewarding accomplishments.
IDEA Warning to the PM Abiy Ahmed-Led Ethiopian Government
IDEA Editorial December 17, 2019
The Institute of Development and Education for Africa (IDEA) has serious concerns about the complicated and incredibly dangerous political landscape that currently prevails in Ethiopia; hence this warning to the present governing elite of the country. It is for the sake of the Ethiopian people and the wish of stability and progress in Ethiopia that we at IDEA came up with a caveat so that wrong policies and political programs are redeemed before the country plunges into the abyss. The enumeration format below is deliberately wrought to attract the eyes and perceptive minds of Ethiopians and the powers-that-be:
Sink or swim: unlocking the Nile impasse
December 8, 2019by Mahemud Tekuya
Since the obligation imposed in both the Amharic and English versions of the 1902 Anglo-Ethiopian Treaty does not prohibit Ethiopia from equitably using the Nile waters, even without the consent of Great Britain (now Sudan), and since the other Nile Water Treaties have no legal relevance to Ethiopia as it was neither signatory nor acceded to them, all of the grounds support Ethiopia. Therefore, it is very likely that the ICJ will abrogate the Nile Water Treaties, and rule for the equitable allocation of Nile waters.
For centuries, Ethiopia, Sudan, and Egypt have been battling over the Nile, and now with the ever-increasing tension over the GERD, the three countries are disputing over the validity of the Nile Water Treaties. Resolving the disputes is possible, but only if Sudan and Egypt accede into the CFA or the three countries take the case to ICJ.
last man standing
30, 2019by Ermias Amare
power-hungry category primarily comprises Mekelle
University academics and ethno-nationalists whose
interests are for Debretsion to maintain hostile
relations with the central government as well as
with his constituents, leaving his leadership
economically and politically hollow, and creating
an opportunity to eventually usurp power. Those
that fall into this category have strategically
gained the support of the masses in Tigray by
sensationalizing issues and spreading nationalism.
group is critical of TPLF and its administration
of Tigray in the past 28 years, pointing to
widespread nepotism and cronyism, and the
abandonment of the Tigrayan masses. They use fear
tactics by centering discourse on the violent
events of the past few years, despite discontent
and unrest occurring nationwide. More reading
fanning instability in Somalia, S. Sudan: UN
DECEMBER 1 2019
months after winning the Nobel Peace Prize,
Ethiopia’s reformist Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed
is fighting accusations of his interfering with
the affairs of neighboring countries.
November, two United Nations reports accused him
of being lukewarm in South Sudan peace process and
fueling fires of instability in Somalia; two of
the countries he has been closely involved in as
the chairman of the Intergovernmental Authority on
South Sudan, where Igad midwife a revitalized
peace agreement in September last year, Abiy’s
government, Uganda and Kenya were accused of being
inconsistent in ensuring the deal is implemented.
Ethiopia: From Pre-Election Euphoria to Post-Election Stress Disorder
By Tesfaye Habisso December 26, 2005
The third national elections that took place on May 15,2005 represents a landmark in the history of our young and fragile democracy. Nothing of that sort has ever happened before. This election will always be remembered, for good or bad, by the people of Ethiopia for many decades to come.
Today, several months after a period of alternating euphoria and gloom regarding this much-talked about national elections we are still waiting for the dust to settle. Many families still feel aggrieved and resentful, and are in a complete daze and shock, gripped by fear and grief, and in a confused state, not sure of what the future holds for them. As repercussions of the post-election crisis continue to reverberate through most of the country, I am afraid, it will take us some time before the case is satisfactorily resolved by the state and the wounds suffered by the nation effectively healed.
Is Ethiopia Heading Toward a One Man-Show Politics or One Party Dictatorship? Ghelawdewos Araia, PhD
September 22, 2019
Contrary to the promises of the PM and bright hope of Ethiopians, however, in no time and under the watchful eyes of the present government, Ethiopia encountered political mess and instability unparalleled in its modern history. Millions of Ethiopians were displaced from their turf, hundreds upon hundreds killed and their property looted and burned down. The political discomfort and chaos that Ethiopians have encountered now is a result of EPRDF’s nature and characteristics that effectively muzzled democracy, although the EPRDF also scored major success in foundational economy and maintaining peace and order for two and half decades; Abiy and his regime are byproducts of the EPRDF and could not be solely blamed for all Ethiopia’s problems, but they will shoulder a big chunk for the cause of the political mess.
a year Ethiopia was blanketed by a wave of
euphoria that was characterized by a sense of hope
and sadness. Hopes were high and the most
ambitious objectives of forgiveness and medemer of
goals seemed attainable. The Ethiopian people’s
active mass unrest and resistance, the EPRDF led
coalition was forced to accept some major
political reforms, in March 2018 when Dr. Abiy
Ahmad became the chairman of the party.
Mobilized by the reform demonstrated in the
process is; however, dominated and arrested by
internal limitations, antagonistic political
interests, and regional contenders. Widening
political differences between Federalists those
who support the existing Ethiopian Constitution
and Federal system in one hand; and Unionists who
oppose Federalism and the existing Constitution on
the other hand, is among other antagonisms getting
at the bottom of the Ethiopian politics now and in
the very near future of the country.
We concerned Diaspora Tigreans have witnessed two
communiqués issued one by the Federalist and
another Unionist. In support of the communiqué
delivered by our Oromo Ethiopian brothers and
sisters, we are posting both the pro and
anti-federalism thesis for readers to compare and
make a good judgment for the betterment of the
Ethiopia people. We strongly object the objectives
of the Amhara political elite communiqué’s
narration and intensions that fuels for further
the undersigned individuals and national/ethnic
based nonprofit and community organizations
representing our members, found this Communiqué
to be extremely disingenuous, doom-laden and
reflecting a one-sided political narrative that
does not represent the view of the vast majority
of the peoples of Ethiopia. And hence this
The Significance and Preeminence of Ethiopian Unity: Systems and Institutions that Glued and Bonded Ethiopian Communities Ghelawdewos Araia, PhD August 23, 2019
One important lesson that we Ethiopians get from Ezana is not only his sense of justice, but the fact that he had a universal idea of governance and nationhood; he saw himself not only king of Aksum but of all peoples under his dominion, irrespective of the languages they spoke and the customs they followed and practiced. King Ezana (320-360 CE) considered himself as king of Aksum, Saba, Salhen, Himyar, Dhu-Raydan, Kassu, and Kush. The universal attitude and ideology, as we shall discuss in the last part of this paper, is one important mechanism to overcome the current narrow and enclave ethnic politics in Ethiopia.
Freedom for all
Tigrayan Freedom Fighters: Time for Abiy Ahmed Ali to Repent and Apologize
Mogos Abraham, PhD Center for Middle Eastern Studies
21 Aug. 2019
I was dumfounded to listen and watch news via multiple media outlets telling the world that Abiy Ahmed Ali (hereafter Ali, using his last name) has placed more than 1,500
Tigrayan freedom fighters and hardworking business persons
(Tigrayan) in political-prison dungeons, unknown-underground political prisons. It must be noted that all these
Tigrayan are embodiments of Woyane, the revolutionary struggle for freedom. The illegal actions were taken against the freedom fighters for no other reason than for being
Tigrayan freedom fighters. Even if there were any allegations against them, they were legally entitled to be innocent and free until proven guilty, i.e.,
Ethiopia’s Developmental State Model: A Reflection on Francis Fukuyama’s Article Asayehgn Desta, Sarlo Distinguished Professor of Economic Development,
Dominican University of California
According to Fukuyama, some of the vital factors that have contributed to the “ups and downs” and impeded Ethiopia’s Developmental State Model arose from: 1) Lack of privately owned enterprises, 2) inadequate recruitment and promotion of Ethiopian bureaucrats, 3) imperfect valuation of the internal rate of return (IRR) and the externalities impact of the Chinese mega projects in Ethiopia, 4) imperfect access of Ethiopia’s exports to Western markets, and 5) lack of a unifying national identity.Using the above-stated framework, Professor Fukuyama (June 11, 2019) concludes that Ethiopia’s Developmental State Model would have achieved a sustained pathway of economic and social development, provided the ruling party, the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDP):
29, 2019 (ሐምሌ
፪፪ ፪ሺ፩፩) will
mark a special place in Ethiopian history;
throughout Ethiopia, Ethiopians will place their
fingerprints on their respective locales by
planting trees. The concept and practice of the
metaphoric “fingerprints” was first initiated
by the late Prime Minister Meles Zenawi when he
put the cornerstone for the construction of the
Great Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) and said,
“All Ethiopians must put their fingerprints in
the construction of the Dam.” Ever since,
“fingerprints” has become a buzzword for any
initiative and/or development projects in
Sidama people constitute a zone within the
Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples
Regional State (SNNRPS), and they have sought and
demanded a separate regional state, and their
demand has been approved by the Southern Ethiopian
People’s Democratic Movement (SEPDM), one of the
four parities in the EPRDF (governing party)
Our Dilemma as Tigreans and which way forward
Ethiopian Observer Editorial
History repeats itself first as tragedy and second as farce in connection to the Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte as written by Marx. We should not let the forces of destruction to repeat their warmongering to their historical instincts. More importantly, silence in the face of this brewing storm is consequentially tragic. We have a special responsibility to acknowledge our dilemma as Tigreans in order to move the debate forward of our future as a people. Ethiopia is a country based on the free will of its citizens comprising of different respectful and mosaic of ethnicities in union. If the Ethiopia of today does not respect the culture, language and rights of its people, then it is no use to act more Ethiopian than others are. Respect rather than war mongering and ethnic smear, unity rather than divisiveness, peace rather than clan/tribal conflicts, development rather than regression and democracy rather than one man rule, should be the main aspiration of all. However, if push comes to shove, there should be an exit strategy in a family of nations and nationalities as empowered by the Constitution. No one should be considered as a second citizen and no one could stand anymore.
Rotten and Fractured Beyond Repair, EPRDF no
More: Emergency Exit for TPLF, Now! Part II
Mogos Abraham, PhD Center for Middle Eastern Studies
Ethnocentrism, which can be defined as wild arrogance and uncivilized behavior, is judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's own culture. Ethnocentric individuals judge other groups, nations, nationalities, and peoples relative to their own culture and history. Consequences of ethnocentrism are disastrous. Read for example, the manifesto of the National Movement of Amhara (NaMA), which was founded on 10 June 2018 in Bahir-Dar, the capital city of the Amhara Regional State. NaMA is an extremely dangerous organization. It disparages (demeans) TPLF’s contributions to Ethiopia’s modernization. It harbors a wild wish to eliminate TPLF. It does not recognize EPRDF as a legitimate government; and it has declared ADP as an agent of TPLF.
General Seare Mekonnen, the Chief of Staff of the
Ethiopian armed forces and his colleague Major
General Gezae Abera were murdered in the home of
the former by his own body guard in an attempted
coup d’état on 15 June 2019, four days later a
funeral was arranged on 19 June 2019 at the city
of Mekelle, the capital of Tigray.
Abiy Ahmed’s Reforms Have Unleashed Forces He Can No Longer Control
Ethiopia’s prime minister oversaw the chaotic release of thousands of prisoners, including many ethnonationalist militants. His amnesty may now be coming back to haunt him.
BY NIZAR MANEK | JULY 4, 2019, 11:13 AM
Hours after the Bahir Dar killings, in Addis Ababa, a bodyguard shot the chief of staff of the ENDF, Gen. Seare Mekonnen, and a retired major general, Gezae Abera. Whether the guard, Corporal Mesafint Tigabu, acted on instructions or on his own remains a mystery, as does the extent and coherence of operational planning on the part of Asaminew and his alleged accomplices in the killings earlier in the evening.
Asaminew may have acted without careful planning. Days before June 22, internal evaluation proceedings known as gimgema befell Asaminew, insiders reported, with a plan to relieve him as head of Amhara state’s administration and security bureau. The ADP has released an alleged June 22 audio recording of Asaminew outlining “measures taken against ADP leaders because they have sabotaged the people’s demands.”
Sinkhole Politics Ethiopian Style: The Breakdown of Law and Order and the Assassination of General Seare
Mekonnen, Major General Gezae Aberra and Dr. Ambachew Mekonnen
Ghelawdewos Araia, PhD June 27, 2019
In concluding this essay, I like to underscore that the Abiy Government must now shoulder a huge responsibility to calm the Ethiopian nation-state and bring solace to the family of the victims. Additionally, the Ethiopian Government must now seize the moment in rendering justice and bringing the criminals before the court of law; arresting people en mass is not going to be a solution to the current complicated problem, and the Government must not act alone in the decision making process; as a matter of course, it should operate hand-in-glove with the Ethiopian parliament. I am of the opinion that a joint session of the House of Peoples’ representatives and House of Federation should be held to investigate the Bahir Dar and Addis Ababa tragic incidents;
Tecola W Hagos, 4 July 2019
Dedicated to the Memories of all Ethiopians brutally murdered and in Acknowledgment of those who were violently ejected from their homes and farms for political reasons
in the 2018 – 2019 shameful Period in our recent history. I still believe in the long run the Amhara people with the right leader are the people who will preserve Ethiopia if they get the wisdom to work with the Tigrai people and the possible new leaders of TPLF rather than fight over some local territories of Wolkiet and Raya. I am not against restructuring administrative territories on non-ethnic or language basis as long as it is done to promote unity and efficiency, and manageability. I am totally against the Kilil system left for us to fight over by that traitor monster Meles Zenawi. I am for throwing out the Kilil administrative structure and replace it either with the old Teklai Gizate system or adopt locally structured Woreda system with no ethnic base for political or economic power. You have no idea how much I despise that vicious little man whose ideas are destroying us now beyond his grave. He should have been buried in the volcanic lava lake in Afar, Dalol, rather than among the tombs of Ethiopian great patriots.
Ethiopia PM Abiy Ahmed weeps for general killed in 'coup bid'
Gen Seare Mekonnen was reportedly assassinated by his bodyguard as part of a plot to seize power in the northern region of
Amhara.Officials say the bodyguard is being treated for his injuries, contradicting an earlier claim that he was dead.
The alleged ringleader of the coup was shot dead on Monday, police
ssaminew Tsige was reportedly killed as he tried to escape from his hideout in Amhara's capital, Bahir Dar.
The internet has been shut across Ethiopia, after a brief resumption in service that followed an unexplained blackout lasting more than a week.
Ethiopia’s coup attempt spells disaster for its democratic transition
By Abdi Latif Dahir June 24, 2019
e biggest obstacle to Ethiopia’s transition to democracy came knocking this weekend.
In what officials described as a coup attempt, the governor of the northern Amhara region Ambachew Mekonnen along with advisor Ezez Wassie were killed. The regional attorney general Migbaru Kebede also sustained heavy injuries and was undergoing medical treatment. The country’s chief of staff Seare Mekonnen was also killed by his bodyguard in his residence in Addis Ababa along with major general Gezai
Abera. By Sunday morning, the government said arrests had been made and the situation was under control. The internet was also blocked across the Horn of Africa nation.
From Meles’ ‘Dead End’ to Abiy’s ‘New Horizon’
June 10, 2019by William Davison Ethiopia Insight
Few contest that the Meles model was defective and ran into severe difficulties. However, ultimately, Ethiopia is one of the world’s poorest countries and afflicted by intense political, demographic, and environmental pressures. To prioritize its stability and development, foreign partners could back debt relief, not austerity. “There’s a question of whether the international community has fully appreciated the nature of the challenge. Ethiopia needs an infusion of cash on a scale that no-one is willing to contemplate yet,” says a diplomat worried about a Yugoslav-style fragmentation of a fractious multinational federation facing surging ethno-nationalism. Concurrent political and economic liberalization contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union, while Yugoslavia’s disastrous fragmentation was preceded by serious economic problems.
The Federalist and Unitary Systems in Comparative Perspective and in the Ethiopian
Context Ghelawdewos Araia, PhD
June 7, 2019“The 21st century might be destined to be federalism’s secolo d’oro, its gilded age, the finest hour.” Michael A. Pagano
In light of the success stories championed and implemented by the many federal systems around the world, and also in relation to Ethiopia’s relative advancement in a span of two and half decades, it is imperative that Ethiopian politicians, elites, intellectuals, and civic leaders (including religious and business leaders) strive for the continuation of the federal system, and reform it if necessary, via dialogue and all-Ethiopia conference. Ethiopians must understand that it is much easier to build on what already exists than demolish present institutions and start from scratch. As Michael Burgess convincingly argues, “In the making of federations political elites must work with the grain. They have to work with materials that they have at hand. Federation is appropriate only at certain times and in certain circumstances.
Professor Asmerom Legesse’s
A historical Analysis and Psychological Profile of Emperor Yohannes IV
Professor Desta, Asayehgn
To conclude, instead of voluntarily undergoing oppression and conducting a historical and unscientifically research, if mental sound and age does not catch up, it is high time that Asmerom goes back to apply the hallmarks of scientific investigation techniques in conjunction with intellectual ethical standard to thoroughly investigate the reasons why Eritreans are forced to live “ …behind one of the world’s fastest-emptying nations: a country of about 4.5 million on the Horn of Africa, governed by a secretive dictatorship accused of human-rights violations,” (Matina Stevis and Joe Parkinson, Feb. 2, 2016). To reiterate, rather than being the defender for an autocrat, let us hope that Asmerom wakes up one day and makes concerted efforts to rescue the subdued Eritrean masses.
purpose of this essay is to clarify and counter
the misunderstandings and misinterpretations of my
article entitled “Dejazmach Subagadis Woldu:
Governor of Tigray and Prince of Ethiopia”.
First and foremost, however, I like to make my
position clear on some relatively sensitive issues
such as the identity of personalities that the
article apparently stirred controversy; secondly,
I found it important that explanatory notes are
necessary in order to combat the misguided and
cynical readers’ viewpoints, who without reading
the entire article entertained vitriolic language
and curses, and in order to make this essay much
more educational, I will first address the
positive reactions by some of my readers by way of
extending my gratitude to them, and then respond
to the negative reactions.
Detained Tigrayan youth land blow on TPLF
May 15, 2019by Getachew Gebrekiros Temare
Activists are challenging the ruling party by encouraging citizens to demand their rights
State ownership of land has led to the relocation of hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians in recent decades to make way for investments, profiting foreign and local firms at the expense of farmers
igray has felt the pain of land grabbing for a long time. The outskirts of towns such as Mekele, Shire, Humera, and Maichew have experienced it in the name of ‘development’ that benefits only the few. The recent cause of fury in the Enderta district around Mekele is mostly maladministration and corruption.
Victims have been asking the regional administration to give due compensation for snatched land. But, no one in authority is willing to listen to their grievances. As a result, the youths from Enderta woreda started protesting against Tigray’s government—and have suffered for it.
The last death- note (will) of a dying
mother It is not late wake-up!
By Aster Tesfay
We have been preached by so-called "intellectuals and progressive" personalities and groups since the sixties particularly after the unexpected coup attempt by General Mengistu Neway/Girmamie Neway and their colleagues. Since then we had thousands of slogans, political proposals, agendas, and different ideological narratives. Some of the narratives ended in bloodshed consuming people who used to be considered as the cream of the society without yielding the desired aim/goal. Today we are at a point where no one is listening to another but to himself even without understanding his own ability leave alone to realize the desire of the people at large who are the pillars of any decision of the future of the nation.
Dejazmach Subagadis Woldu: Governor of Tigray and Prince of Ethiopia
Ghelawdewos Araia, PhD May 15, 2019
Subagadis and his ancestors, including Dagmawi Seme who later relocated to the Aiga area in Adi Irob, spoke Tigrigna but they also learned how to speak Saho but this does not make them to be Irob. This fact is substantiated by Abba Tesfai Medhin in his book entitled The History of the Irob People, in which he argues that the origin of the Irob is from Tigray proper and more so from the central highlands of Agame; he further argues that the original language of Seme was Tigrigna. Moreover, the Saho language of the Irob is an admixture of Saho and Tigrigna and it is not entirely Saho as is the case in the Saho (Asawrta) of
Rotating the Governance of the Capital City of the Zones in the Regional State of Tigray: Restoring the Promise of Democratic Autonomy
Desta, Asayehgn, Sarlo Distinguished Professor of Sustainable Economic Development “Proactive planning for the inevitable trend is wisdom of the highest level” (Yohannes Aberra Ayele, (March 27, 2019)
The dramatic expansion of the Mekelle city could be attributed to push and pull factors. Over the years, Mekelle City has been pulling residents from other regions because it has established itself as Ethiopia’s administrative, commercial, industrial, and social services center. In search of higher wages, the unemployed from other parts of the region have been flocking to the City of Mekelle to earn their livelihood. Meanwhile, the dearth of poverty and lack of employment opportunities in other regions has pushed residents of the other regions toward Mekelle City. Thus, Mekelle has earned the title “Killer City,” because it achieved economic acceleration at the expense of its surrounding areas. Mekelle’s disproportionate concentration economic activities have not only perpetuated a sense of maladministration among the Regional State of Tigray, but it also has hindered its economic intercourse with the other regions.
We might not succeed or not, in building a better future, but no one can question the authenticity of our desire, how much we are prepared to sacrifice for the opportunity to gain good governance dignity, and justice as people. A system built on the culture of secrecy, parochialism and nepotism will always breed adverse political consequence and self-interest and consequently final downfall
Intimidated political opponents, silenced the press, and weakened the judiciary. Our Tigrai went through a time of incredible horror which most people appeared to ignore. It is one thing to be aggressive and constrained and it is another to be aggressive and unconstrained. With such harsh police brutality and repressive measures will not keep Enderta youths from rising up against tyranny. It is a notable people’s movement towards justice and democracy.TPLF’s
recurrent reform and promise to clean its act from
corruption and abuse of power has always been a
short lived promise to deceive and at the same
time soothe the anger of our people.
AFRICA BETWEEN US, WE COVER THE WORLD
Ethiopia’s Economic Miracle Is an Environmental Tragedy
Ethiopia’s rivers and lakes are now drying up at terrifying speed.
By Christelle Gérand The core problem is Ethiopian-style development, the downside of the economic miracle vaunted by prominent economists. The World Bank praised Ethiopia’s double-digit growth from 2005 to 2015, mostly due to expanding agriculture, construction, and services. Ethiopia, a landlocked state, is doing all it can to attract foreign investors, with water and electricity almost free and rents at 10 percent of market rate, especially in the textile sector. The rural population and the environment are the biggest
losers. Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, in office since April 2018, symbolically called a halt to the previous government’s system of favoritism. He canceled a number of public contracts awarded to the Metals and Engineering Corporation, a military-run conglomerate of 98 companies, 26 of whose leaders are being prosecuted for corruption.
“It all began in Tigray.
Tigray is the cradle and hub of Ethiopian civilization. In Tigray,
Ethiopia’s future seems to contend its past while the present testifies
cyclical historical events as constant reminders of the distant and near
past. In Tigray, the modern period seems to tend the requisite touch of
antiquity, as if to deliberately endure uninterrupted Ethiopian state.
After all, this quintessentially northern Ethiopian state is the plain
field of ancient civilization and unparalleled conventional wisdom, and as
custodian to that epic African ingenuity.”3
few months after Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed assumed office, a BBC journalist asked him “are you the man to unite Ethiopia?” He breezily replied, “of course I am, no doubt about it.”
Subsequently, he injected Ethiopia with hope, and undertook a bold program of renewal. Yet despite his messages of optimism and unity, the country remains divided, maybe even more so, and major challenges remain.
Abiy is a leader of multiple characters rather than a steady manager like his predecessor Hailemariam Desalegn. In his inaugural speech he promised to transform governance and transition to genuine democracy. He brought a different flavor to EPRDF Ethiopia where narratives were repeated consistently at every level of the state structure. He spoke differently, he acted differently.
Ethioobserver staff Tesfamariam Hishe
The features of democracy are freedom, dissent, tolerance, justice, due process, and fairness. These features are both moral/ethical and political. In moral/ethical terms, they function as lodestars of action. The citizens in a democratic society are seen as the ultimate source of political authority. Members of the government, by contrast, are seen as servants of the people, and are selected and elected to serve the people’s interests. Democratic systems developed to protect and enhance the freedom of the people. However, for the system to function properly, citizens must engage freely.
The peaceful and hard-working people of Enderta are victimized by illegal and drastic demographic massive displacements wherein they are removed by force from their ancestral homes and farmland to be replaced by individuals from other parts of Tigrai often individuals who have some form of blood connections with Sebhat Nega and members of his support-group.
On Megabit 22, 2011 (Ethiopian
calendar), Sebhidri held a public meeting, and
people expressed their thoughts in the meeting.
Soon after, the local administrative authorities
began attacking the individuals who entertained
ideas. At any rate, they observed
that intensive campaign is being undertaken by the
authorities in order to frighten and subdue the
people who attempted to speak out based on their
fundamental rights. This is really a gross
violation of the constitution, human as well as
all practical purposes, what Tigrai needs now than
ever before is unity, peace, democracy and
development. As has been said and preached for
decades over and over again, Tigray’s ardent
enemy is political intolerance for opposing views,
monopoly of power, corruption, nepotism, backward
mentality and transparency. TPLF leadership should
contribute tangible results, rather than
suffocating the nation with fear and luck of
accountability according to the needs of the
people it serves. What is required for TPLF old
guards and their foot soldiers is to undergo soul
cleansing from its rigorous mistakes and work for
the benefit of the society. TPLF cannot lead for
long unless the public is behind it and anger
among the population is boiling, which might soon
burst out with no turning point. What is at stake
at this moment is our own survival as a pride
nation and people.We also urge
the regional government to set free both those who
were currently incarcerated and others so that
there we have a regional reconciliation based on
solidarity, freedom and interest of our people.
Tecola W Hagos, 17 April 2019
Recently, Dergeadjen, Quiha; Enderta, Mekelle et cetera are the new flash points of rebellion. Nebiyou Sehulmichaele and Tsigabu Equiba were brutally attacked along several Citizens and were hauled of destination unknown, for trying to clean up the town of Quiha apparently in response to the national call by Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed of 12 April 2019. Did Amharas force Debretsion to commit such criminal atrocities against peaceful Citizens violating their constitutional Rights? Tigrai Kilil Administration seems to think that it is an independent governing body of a state/nation. The TPLF Leaders who control the Tigrai Kilil administration must be held accountable for such fracturing of a Nation of Ethiopia.
Adding Fuel to Fire to an already Chaotic and Slippery Politics: The Case of Nebiyu Suhul Michael & his Friends in Tigray
However, the violent attack of Nebiyu Suhul Michael and his friends during the all-Ethiopia cleaning campaign day (April 14, 2019) could be a major setback for Tigray in general and the TPLF leadership in particular. The Institute of Development and Education for Africa (IDEA) is very much concerned about the use of excessive force and unnecessary violence against unarmed peaceful citizens and would like to convey a piece of advice by way of sending a clear message to the political leadership in Tigray.
The TPLF should encourage opposing ideas and discourses to flourish and not act as impediment to the cornerstones and contributing fabrics in the making of a democratic larger society. A genuine democracy requires free speech, free press, and peaceful demonstration and protestation, which, in turn, serve as solid foundations for a political culture of an open and free political debate. Moreover, the TPLF must shoulder responsibility in guaranteeing freedom to the people of Tigray within its jurisdictional sovereign territory.
wave of protests, which swept the Oromia region
has also come to epitomize Tigrai. successful
protest in Oromia and other regions in Ethiopia
come also to roost in Tigrai, where a process of
leadership change came by sending a powerful
signal of protest, where the TPLF leadership could
listen to the maladministration and nepotism,
prevailing for so long time. However, the present
leadership became instead of gathering the whole
populace in Tigrai in this time of disarray and
risk of disintegration, it has with its henchmen
reacted violently against persons, who used free
speech as their legitimate democratic right and
freedom. The way this was done can trigger a
spiraling violence and suspicion bon how true the
leadership stands to the core of the Ethiopian
Constitution, though it repeatedly shouts foul
against those who are ready to dismantle it.
THE DESTRUCTIVE vs THE HUMANE:
The Ethiopia of Briskela, Kidus, Robel, Seinet, et cetera?
Tecola W Hagos, 13 April 2019
[DEDICATED TO THE BEAUTIFUL, TALENTED, LOVING, HARDWORKING, AND CHARMING CHILDREN OF ETHIOPIA]
There is not much we can do about our individual origin. We are already dealt our life-cards and must play those life-cards the best we could. The monsters that lead the OLF with its savage armed thugs must be held accountable for the atrocities committed by them against absolutely innocent unarmed citizens of Ethiopia all over Ethiopia except in Tigrai Kilil during the period of the leadership of Abiy Ahmed. There is no question that Abiy Ahmed made serious errors in allowing subversive political groups, such as the OLF into Ethiopia. We hear now the corrosive Jawar Mohammad clawing back from his genocidal rhetoric and instigation of ethnic cleansing to supporting Eskinder Nega. I hope he abandons his hateful anti-Ethiopia diatribe through his OMN.
Should Ethiopia stick with ethnic federalism? And is the current federal system encouraging ethnic violence?
Goitom Gebreluel by Goitom Gebreluel
Ethiopia embarked upon a set of political reforms in early 2018 that were greeted with euphoric enthusiasm. Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed's new administration initiated political
liberalization, releasing political prisoners and inviting exiled opposition groups that had been designated terrorist
organizations to return to Ethiopia. The country's second attempt at
democratization has however also been accompanied by a surge in political violence (often along ethnic lines), resulting in - among other things - the displacement of nearly three million people. Notable among these are the almost 900,000 Gedeo people who had to flee from their homes in the Guji zone of Oromia
How did US and Ethiopia become so close?
A high-level US delegation just returned from Ethiopia, which is arguably America's closest ally on the continent of Africa. How did these two countries become so close? Journalist James Jeffrey explains.
It's noticeable soon after you land in Washington - the city is full of
Ethiopians. Their ubiquitous presence - behind the counter at Starbucks or the wheels of taxis - in the bastion of American government
symbolizes the two pillars of this alliance.
The Ethiopian Diaspora across America - the second largest community after Nigerians - has played an enormous role in influencing ongoing political reforms that have rocked Ethiopia since the beginning of 2018.
know such ridiculous propaganda and intimidation
is an act of desperation, the time has come for
real change and we should embrace it, and go along
that respects rule of law and practice democracy
and accountability. Desperate leaders they
intimidate politicians, educators and try to
suppress media and arrest individuals with
tramped-up charges. People will not rest until
they gain freedom. Although,
it is quite difficult to pass judgment on TPLF
leadership and their attack dogs to smear
individual names who dare to express their concern
at this stage, such open interview will help
reinforce our national unity and to counter and
challenge any divisive Awraja based politics and
economic structure headings.If we believe that genuine dialogue,
discourse, discussion, and debate among Tigreans
can take place and must be encourage such open
interview, it keeps us all to see the beauty,
history and greatness of our Tigrai. Above all
everything else, Awrjaism, party-politics need to
be challenged to their very core. The time has
come that freedom is triumphed over dictatorship
and people refuse to be intimidated yesterday’s
leaders are so paranoid to the extent fear their
own shadows. As they say goes (Mekenai Tsebuk) or
Ethiopia is an ancient African country and one of the oldest states in the world. As Abyssinia its culture and traditions date back over 3,000 years and as the Kingdom of Cush beyond time immemorial. Throughout the centuries, Ethiopia had always been the symbol of ancient African civilization and statehood--one that can boast the most remarkable achievement and glorious past from long bygone times. Some seven decades and seven years ago, a Ghanaian historian, Dr. Joseph B. Danguah, in his introduction to the book, United West Africa at the Bar of the Family of Nations, by Ladipo Solanke, published in 1927, wrote:
ABIY AHMED, THE NEEDLE:
Some Solutions to the current challenges facing Ethiopians Tecola W Hagos, 25 March 2019
PART I. ABIY AHMED
1. In General
Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed keeps messing up my logic-oriented brain with his beautifully crafted speeches and messages. His recent address/message of 18 March 2019, with his epochal symbolism of a needle threading through marking a new path that also pulls along a motley of unsavory characters of all sorts, is a metaphorical statement that is highly evocative and unforgettable. For that message alone, Abiy Ahmed deserves a second look, a reassessment of his circumstance of how he lives and survives surrounded and suffocated by individuals the likes of Lemma Megersa and the threat of Qeerroo Bilisummaa Oromoo (hereafter ‘Qeerroo’).
Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed keeps messing up my
logic-oriented brain with his beautifully crafted
speeches. His recent address with his epochal
symbolism of a needle threading through a new path
that also pulls along a motley of unsavory
characters of all sorts is a metaphorical
statement that is highly evocative and
that statement alone, Abiy Ahmed deserves a second
look, a reassessment of his circumstance how he
lives with individuals the likes of Lemma Megersa
with disgusting narrow mindedness and who allowed
hooligan terrorist Oromo Qerros (under the
guidance of Jawar Mohammed, Dawood Ibsa, Takele
Uma, et cetera criminals who should be tried under
the 1948 Genocide Convention; Penal Code of
Ethiopia: Article 281
Genocide; Crimes against Humanity ff)
to butcher and displace hundreds of thousands of
Ethiopian citizens mainly Amharas, Gedos, Somalies,
Southern Peoples, Tigreis et cetera including the
recent demolitions of homes of tens of thousands
of Ethiopian Citizens at Legatafo who have lived
in the so called Oromo Kilil all their lives.
I am amazed almost every single day that I have lived for as long as I have when quite a number of my contemporaries, as well as a few of my juniors, are no more. A recent tragic death of a very talented and politically astute cousin (more like a brother) brought home to me the fragility of human life as a matter of fact and how deeply we all lose in our vanity. Our decade is a truly difficult period, but not as horrible as the earlier ones of long periods of wars, of famine and pestilence, and of liberation struggles and of frail nation building. Have we succeeded in laying out the foundational structures for our future survival?
However, neither Abiy Ahmed nor Lemma Megersa are the Ethiopian Leaders we all thought they were. Their recent inaction and deceitful statements at crucial junctures of enormous crises of persecution and ethnic cleansing and eviction of citizens in Oromo Kilil clearly established their true colors of narrow ethnic goal of a separate Oromo entity and the destruction of Ethiopia. I was aware of Abiy Ahmed’s flirtation with such retarded idea of ethnic supremacy when he was official in the Oromo Kilil Leadership.
Priorities in Ethiopian Politics: Expediting the Exigencies and Postponing the Inessential Ones
Ghelawdewos Araia, PhD March 1, 2019
This Article is dedicated to the 123rd anniversary of the victory of the Ethiopian people at the Battle of Adwa on March 1, 1896
Ethiopia is at crossroads again, undertaking, this time, not a scientific revolution but a scientific reform; incremental at times and transformational at other times. It is in the latter sense and in the context of the two quotations above that this article is written. For the above reason, thus, the purpose of this article is three fold: 1) to make a quick glance at some relevant ideas of the past; 2) to thoroughly examine the priorities in Ethiopian politics; and 3) to furnish redeeming ideas to current Ethiopian malaise, sort of proposal in order to bit the odds and come up with a sound policy spectrum that could in turn catapult Ethiopia in the right direction and subsequently achieve a more....
our past history and the
sacrifices made by our
ancestors and making it
part of our social fabric
today and should enable us
to deal with the latest
waves of systematic
cover to change the
demographic of our
ancestors land, that has
been defended through
scarifies of our
forefathers blood and
salute our ancestors for
their selfless devotion;
we have to be inspired by
their sprit to fight
any form of operation like
Kedemai Woyane. Deki
Aday our people demand
honoring our great
leaders, before and after
them, without justice
there is no peace. The
current land grabbing and
uprooting villagers are a
sad saga that will create
instability, the madness
must be stopped, and we
have the right to live in
land of our ancestors.
Egrihareba stood for
justice and there is a lot
to learn from their heroic
fight, you are not alone
we stood with you.
only are people often
ignorant of their own
motives, they're also
masters of self-deceptive
often strategic maneuvers
aimed at convincing others
that the person is smart,
and so on. People believe
about themselves so that
they” Daniel Gibson
economist. Former foreign
Incapacitated Caretaker Ethiopian
Government: High Time for a New Revolutionary Democratic Developmental State
Mogos Abraham, PhD
Center for Middle Eastern Strategic Studies
27 Feb. 2019
Meaning and Mandates
His childish behavior and treacherous actions have revealed that Abiy Ahmed Ali (hereafter Mr. Ali) does not understand the meaning and mandates of a caretaker government. Conventionally, caretaker government is a temporary government mandated to make sure stability of a country’s prevailing governance system until a democratically elected government takes over. Ensuring social, economic, and political stability and territorial integrity of the country is a caretaker government’s obligation. Caretaker is just a gatekeeper, waiting for the democratically elected boss to arrive. A well-defined code of conduct in governing is constitutionally binding. For example, the president, the prime minister, speakers/deputy speakers of both the House of Representatives and the House of Federation, federal ministers and their respective officials, presidents of the regional states and their respective officials, and other public office holders shall not be involved in election campaigns in any manner whatsoever.
Our silence engenders our
family members and those
deprived their being
because this systematic
Enderta people are
marginalized and are
deprived of their rights
to live on their ancestral
land. But development has
to do with human rights
and access to natural
resources on equal basis.
It important to be angered
by the extreme injustice
of people having their
ancestral land pulled
beneath their feet. The
land rush has been
supported by corruption
and greed; it is becoming
a source of tension. In
contempt of the
inhabitants in Enderta,
they are forced to sell to
the regional government
very cheap at times less
than what costs an egg and
in return the regional
government sells it in
thousands at a profit
unheard of. Villagers have
felt squeezed and
abandoned. The historical
wrote ”we can have no
of any culture unless we
also know the silences
that were institutionally
created and granted along
with it”. The harm done
by silence is more
dangerous and urgent
attention is needed to
combat the land grabbing
issue that is uprooting
the residents of Enderta.
They cannot afford to live
on their own land under
the present situation.
They are cooking up a
tragedy to happen and stop
this land grab madness; as
there are many areas of
the region that also need development. The
failure to act was a
compound of arrogance and incompetence.
Land is one of the most valuable commodities as it’s a source for basic necessities of life: food, clothing and shelter. For that reason, it’s regarded highly by its human inhabitants. On the downside, land has been a source of conflict in various communities all over the world, and serves as an effective tool for citizen control in undemocratic societies. When it comes to Ethiopia – entrenched in its early Marxist-Leninist ideology yet not much different from previous military and monarchial rule – the TPLF-led EPRDF Government conveniently bestowed land ownership rights on the ‘people’, i.e. government. And currently nowhere is that policy more prevalently visible than in Mekelle, the regional capital of Tigrai. In the almighty name of investment and development, the Government of Tigrai (hereafter GOT or government) is depriving property-owners of not only the land they inherited from their forefathers or obtained it with their hard-earned money, but also providing them with way below market value compensation. In some areas of Mekelle and
Enderta, the GOT is providing as low as three birr per sqm (square meter), while selling it to the highest bidder for as high as thirty thousand birr per
sqm. Sure enough, this is a travesty of justice by any civilized standard and a stretch of imagination.
Anger in Ethiopia as officials demolish hundreds of houses
ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA —
The Ethiopian government has begun demolishing thousands of houses they say are illegal in the Oromia region in the outskirts of the capital, Addis Ababa.
The government said it intends to tear down 12,000 houses that were built illegally on government land, taking advantage of widespread unrest in the region over the past three years. But residents allege that they were paying taxes to the government on the properties.
Power shift creates new tensions and Tigrayan fears in Ethiopia
“Shaking up Ethiopia's government risks exacerbating several long-simmering ethnic rivalries”
James Jeffrey Freelance journalist specialising in Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa
“Ethnic tensions are the biggest problem for Ethiopia right now,” Tewodrose Tirfe, chair of the Amhara Association of America, a US-based advocacy group that played a significant role in lobbying the US government to censor the former regime. “You’ve got millions of people displaced – it’s a humanitarian crisis, and it could get out of control.”
During the first half of 2018, Ethiopia’s rate of 1.4 million new internally displaced people exceeded Syria’s. By the end of last year, the IDP population had mushroomed to nearly 2.4
Institute of Development
and Education for Africa
(IDEA) appreciates and
hails the Conference on
Democracy in Ethiopia that
Dr. Abiy Ahmed, the Prime
Minster of Ethiopia held
with the contending
political parties at the
African Union hall on
February 2, 2019.
Irrespective of the broad
range and variegated
topics and themes
presented by the panel,
what makes this conference
historic is that the paper
presenters and the
exchanged ideas; and
questions raised from the
floor were also eloquently
answered in the spirit of
laying the cornerstone for
the establishment of
democratic culture in
Ethiopia. If these kinds
of conferences continue
without interruption, no
doubt, political culture
will flourish in Ethiopia
and the country’s bright
future will be inaugurated
Transposing Ethiopia while Concurrently Preserving Its Institutional Heritage and Its Political Economy Achievements Ghelawdewos Araia, PhD January 23, 2019
The purpose of this article is to systematically analyze and critique the present Ethiopian politics, policies, and initiatives in the context of change and reform and yet to propose the continuation of Ethiopia’s achievements in the last two and half decades, and use the latter as a convenient platform to constructively guide the future developments of the country. This paper will further discuss the developmental state (hereafter DS) and the neo-liberal policy agenda, in an effort to garner theoretical clarify on concepts and policy spectrums and the impact they would have on Ethiopian politics and the larger Ethiopian society.
to Register Ethiopian
Epiphany Festival with
current movement, request,
and efforts exhibited by
Ethiopians to register
festival with UNESCO was
heralded by one relevant
article entitled “UNESCO
Should Recognize Ethiopian
Epiphany as Intangible
Cultural Heritage”. This
article was authored by
Dr. Ghelawdewos Araia,
Professor of Africana
Studies at Lehman College,
City University of New
York, and President of the
Institute of Development
and Education for Africa
(IDEA) on January 24,
2015. Four years later,
IDEA found it imperative
to repost the article in
an effort to rekindle
Ethiopians’ wish to make
their intangible heritage
universal, and also to
encourage other Ethiopians
who are striving for the
recognition of Ethiopian
Epiphany by UNESCO;
additionally, the goal of
reposting the article is
to provoke discussion
amongst scholars and
academe alike, educate
students and the youth, as
well as inform travelers
and tourists. The article
can be read in its
entirety by clicking on
this link: www.africanidea.org/Ethiopian_Epiphany.html
“If it ain't broke don't fix it” (Bert Lance, May 1977)
role of the state with little reliance on market forces was used as the
cornerstone for the renaissance of the economically successful Northeast
Asian countries, such as Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan
(Zhang, 2018, Ricz, 2016). Following the spectacular growth of many
economies in East Asia, developmental state is increasingly gaining ground
in sub-Saharan Africa. For instance, Botswana, Mauritius, Cote d’Ivoire,
Malawi, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, and South Africa are labeling themselves
as “developmental” (Seshamani and Ndhlovu (2016).
Mining Sector Challenges in Developing Countries, Tigray, Ethiopia and Inspirational Success Stories from Australia
Article (PDF Available) in International Journal of Mining and Mineral Engineering 9(4):321-367 · December 2018 with 214 Reads
he urge to make wealth, reduce unemployment, and improve the living conditions of its people pushes the Ethiopian Government to regulate the mining legislation to favour investment in the sector. The external perception is that some aspects of doing business in Ethiopia are too difficult, and they increase stakeholders’ investment’s risk and undermine potential benefits. Changes allow for business incentives that include security of tenure, the right to sell minerals, equipment and machinery’s preferential duty and tax provisions, a 2%–8% production royalty, a 25% mining corporate tax, custom/duties exemptions, carry forward of losses up to ten years, and profits repatriation’s structuring. Ethiopia’s resource intensity trajectory is expected to take off in the coming years.
Breakdown of peace and order in Ethiopia, the Tigray Factor, and the Confusing Ethiopian-Eritrean Relations
Ghelawdewos Araia, PhD IDEA Editorial January 9, 2019
In the last eight months, i.e. beginning end of April 2018 to present, the whole of Ethiopia is disturbed by ethnic clashes and confrontations that, in large measure, are mysterious and difficult to explicate and define. The victims of disturbances, now close to two million internally displaced, thousands dead, and hundreds upon hundreds that fled to neighboring countries like Kenya and Sudan, have tried to make sense out of the unfortunate phenomenon that they have encountered by saying, “we have lived with our neighbors for millennia, but we never have had such calamity of clashes; we were unable to figure out the agents of chaos who come and disappear after they ignite the quarrel among the people and burn down our properties; we never had such kind of social insecurity caused by criminality....
We, Tegaru/Tigrean residing in Northern
California such as the Bay Area, Fresno, Stockton, and Sacramento, had a
meeting on December 22, 2018 in San Jose, CA. The meeting agenda was to
assess the prevailing situation in Ethiopia with special emphasis on
Tigrai and Tegaru to discuss on how we can effectively help Tegaru in
Ethiopia who are heroically fighting the continuous psychological
distressing, political, economic and social attacking with the aim of
ethnic cleansing by the chauvinist and narrow tribalism forces. During the discussion, we recalled Dr. Abiy’s
sweet promises to the Ethiopian people as a whole, for democracy, rule of
law to apply, forgiveness, reconciliation, tolerance, love and unity with the mantra of “Medemer”
which meant all-inclusiveness and we were amongst the first ethnic group
to welcome and rally behind his vision.
ETHIOPIA: BIZARRO GOVERNMENT?
BIZARRO POLITICIANS? BIZARRO NATION?
Tecola W Hagos 1 January 2019
To state the obvious here and now, Ethiopia is going through very bizarre political and economic transformation. One may say it is perverse to a great extent to see yesterday’s “liberal democrats” advocating ethnic cleansing, supporting one-man-rule of dictatorship, encouraging the establishment of SS Nazi type Republican Guards, endorsing the internment of “Tigrians” in concentration camps, and vindicating Mengistu Hailemariam and his blood-soaked regime from all responsibility for the Red Terror and policy of starvation of millions of Ethiopians.
Ethiopian observer editorial
We are now living in Ethiopia in a volatile political situation and in an economic disaster looming all around us. We are surrounded by our historic enemies and newly minted ones that are getting stronger by the hour. Those of us in the Diaspora have a moral obligation not to promote ethnic conflict with harmful propaganda on the supremacy or corruption of any ethnic group thereby inflaming further a situation that is highly charged with hate and conflict already. Any ethnic based conflict within the Ethiopian community is a victory for Arabs and their foreign masters. Our enemies have become very powerful because we are a divided people. Thus, we urge all opposition leaders and their supporters to tone down their accusations of this or that ethnic or nationality group as the guilty party for all the problems faced by Ethiopia and Ethiopians.
I. Prolegomena - Pointing Fingers
I have never supported federalism based on ethnicism or on language for Ethiopia. I believe in a “unitary” system with guided limited local autonomous provincial administration, with few incorporated urban structures as needed. I justify my position of a unitary administrative structure based on two sold grounds: 1) the primitive state of life in Ethiopia cannot allow or sustain a modernist structure such as federalism of any kind, least of all one based on ethnic identity; 2) lack of skilled and enlightened managerial manpower and the low count of efficient second tier assistants and committed field operators to advance governmental policies and government backed projects.
acronym D.E.M.O.C.R.A.T stands for Democratic Ethiopian Movement of
Creative Reform and Transformation and it is an organization first
conceived and founded by Dr. Ghelawdewos Araia in 2009 and then an attempt
was made to reach out all Ethiopians in Ethiopia and the Diaspora; soon
after it began its initial task by establishing a board of directors,
however, because the larger Ethiopian society in general and the various
Ethiopian communities in particular were polarized by ethnic politics, the
organization was not launched until September 26, 2012. Even then, it was
impossible to get hold of the diverse Ethiopian national groups to work
together for a common goal; now, although ethno-nationalist tendencies
have not subsided yet, there are promising signs that Ethiopians can pull
together for a grand and common Ethiopian national agenda, and we at
DEMOCRAT are encouraged to put the pieces together, and as a result we
have begun our mission on September 2018 and laid the necessary
operational and guideline infrastructure to
catapult the mission and objectives of DEMOCRAT. The organizational
structure of DEMOCRAT and its departments as well as the aims and goals of
the organization will be made available for public consumption at a later
date. However, by way of kicking off DEMOCRAT here below is its mission
It is the best of times for PM Abiy Ahmed to be surrounded by an admiring intimate group of people. Even more so for a man who craves attention to be surrounded by such female crowed, however, bordering the ridiculous. He has created what seems to me a modern-day version of a Turkish Solarium—a harem minus the erotic aspect of that Turkish and Arabesque excesses. He has appointed females for more than fifty percent of all Ethiopian High Governmental Offices to date, including a female President and a female Chair of the National Election Board.
It is the best of times for PM Abiy Ahmed to be surrounded by an admiring intimate group of people. Even more so for a man who craves attention to be surrounded by such female crowed, however, bordering the ridiculous. He has created what seems to me a modern-day version of a Turkish Seraglio—a harem minus the erotic aspect of that Turkish and Arabesque excesses. He has appointed females for more than fifty percent of all Ethiopian High Governmental Offices to date, including a female President and a female Chair of the National Election Board.
Rotten and Fractured Beyond Repair EPRDF no More: Strategic Emergency Exit for TPLF
Mogos Abraham, PhD
Center for Middle Eastern Studies 23 Nov. 2018
Consequences of ethnocentrism, which reveals immature political tendencies, are disastrous. Read for example, the manifesto of the National Movement of Amhara (NaMA), which was founded on 10 June 2018 in Bahir-Dar, the capital city of the Amhara Regional State. NaMA is an extremely dangerous organization. It disparages (demeans) TPLF’s contributions to Ethiopia’s modernization. It does not recognize EPRDF as a legitimate government. It has declared ANDM as an agent of TPLF.
Sometimes autocrats strengthen their power by expanding women’s rights. Here’s how that works.
By Daniela Donno andAnne-Kathrin Kreft November 23
Last month, Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed announced that he had appointed a new cabinet — and that half of its ministers were female. Particularly noteworthy are the appointments of Aisha Mohammed as minister of defense and Muferiat Kamil as the first minister of peace, prestigious ministries at a time when Ethiopia is beginning to soften relations with neighboring Eritrea.
Abiy can appoint a gender-balanced cabinet because the EPRDF has long cultivated female leaders. Our research indicates that dictatorships with strong ruling parties often have dedicated women’s wings or ties with the women’s movement. These help spread the regime’s policies and vision for the country to the people. At the same time, they supply loyal female politicians to fill parliamentary and cabinet posts.
In Ethiopia, the EPRDF’s Women’s League has served these functions. The new minister of peace has held numerous party-appointed positions, including as minister of women’s affairs and as speaker of
IN REMEMBRANCE OF OUR GREAT EMPEROR AND SIXTY MURDERED HEROES, 23 NOVEMBER 1974
Tecola W Hagos, 23 November 2018
Not long ago, I wrote about my disgust with the Ethiopian Government of Meles Zenawi for pardoning some twenty high ranking Derg Officials who were convicted of murder, Red Terror, atrocities of all types on innocent Ethiopians, including the execution of high officials on the grounds of Alem Bekagn on 23 November 1974. I consider such pardon to be unjust and a violation of the rights of the victims and a permanent threat to our humanity. Even worse the Government of PM Abiy Ahmed invited a few such murderers and Red Terror participants to a State Banquette honoring the departing President Mulatu Teshome on the evening of November 2, 2018. We are hypocrites to the bone. Those Derg Officials, now being embraced by Abiy and by the degenerate former Prime Minister Haile Mariam Desalegn (pictured few months back smiling with the mass murderer Mengistu Hailemariam), had murdered and tortured countless innocent Ethiopians from 1974 to 1991. They showed no mercy or any humane consideration to any of their victims.
Ethiopians in general are not moralistic people but spiritualists. We do
not seem to have developed our critical thinking faculties to a high
degree. The freedom we had enjoyed for thousands of years is a lot more
the function of geography than our valor or cunning in fighting foreign
foes. I am not denying that
there were no highly sophisticated intellectuals and also incredibly
courageous commanders in our past. Of course, there were several, but they
were very few. For example, battle field statistics confirms the fact that
for a battle to be over between tens of thousands of Ethiopian combatants,
the death of a few hundred would result in a route and soldiers run for
their lives abandoning wounded comrades even if there were no hostile
Lalibela Should be Patronized and Renovated by Ethiopian Architects and Engineers
IDEA Editorial November 14, 2018
One of the magnificent historical sites in Ethiopia is the town of Lalibela in the north-central part of the country; and the splendid eleven rock-hewn churches in that town are a continuation of Aksumite architecture in the construction of hewn edifices; in Tigray alone there are 126 rock-hewn churches and monasteries, and it is these uniquely Ethiopian buildings, curved out of rocks with amazing mathematical precision and symmetry, that continued in Lalibela and elsewhere in Ethiopia.
Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed continues to irritate me with his obsequious behavior toward President Issayas Afeworki, and now his fawning over President Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed (Farmajo) of Somalia. Pictures from the recent Meeting of the three Leaders show Abiy’s deplorable behavior the source of irritation for me and very many Ethiopians. The singular such picture of the three leaders huddled together like some giggling school girls is both disturbing and unbecoming of the dignified proper conduct of individuals representing sovereign people, I expected. [See the picture below.] Of the three, the most sycophantic is Abiy Ahmed wearing his ridiculous Jano in the fashion of dressing of an Agafare, not appropriate for a head of government. [Abiy, if you wear our National Dress, which is a good idea, but do it properly.] He is acting like a chihuahua beaming and wagging off his tail (in his case, his hands) in the presence of his owner. Look at Abiy’s posture and the look in his face, the way he is adoringly salivating fixated on the face of Issayas Afeworki. I simply could not stand watching an Ethiopian leader in such subservient and servile posture
DISSONANCE WITH TRUTH AND JUSTICE
Tecola W Hagos, 7 November 2018 Abstract: It is unfathomable to me that a current Ethiopian leader would invite former high officials of the brutal murderous military strongman Mengistu Hailemariam to an official State function. Abiy Ahmed just inflicted on us (Ethiopians) another painful and insensitive act of unbridled tyrannical power hubris by inviting the murderous Fikreselassie Wogderese (directly) and Goshu Wolde (by association) to the State Banquette given to honor the departing President Mulatu
I. In General
In the last few weeks much is reveled on both the naiveté and the complexity of the mind of the new Ethiopian Prime Minister, Abiy Ahmed (hereafter referred to as either “Abiy” or just “Prime Minster”). Complexity or naiveté does not necessarily reflect an aspect of a state of moral or ethical content. It is utterly possible to be complex without a strand of ethics or morality in a matrix—consider the game of Chess et cetera. Even in such clear case of action taken in self-defense in preserving one’s own life, one’s action on the ground is not as clear cut of ethical or moral content as it is in theory, for numerous individuals are hard-wired for altruistic acts completely sacrificing their individual lives for the benefit of others often complete strangers.
ውግደ ዲያብሎስ ወራጅ አለ
In memory to all Ethiopians who sacrifice their life for justice and democracy in the true meaning of the slogan
Paul demands active unity in the church, “ A unity that explicitly joins together differing
ethnic groups because of their common identity in Christ. …… The old barrier form of brand-new
humanity. The old barrier of hostility has been demolished by the cross, and now, all peoples are to be one in
Christ” Rom,4. Gal 3-4; col 3
ቅዱሰ ጳውሎሰ በቤተ ዕምነት አንድንትን ሰብካል እንዲህም አለ “ሁሉንም ብሄር፤ ቀለም፤ ዘር የሚያጣምር አንድነት ወሳኝ ነው ምክንያቱም ሁሉም በክረሰቶሰ ፊት አንድ ነው።።
Tragedies of Political Puppetry in Ethiopia
Mogos Abraham, PhD
Center for Middle Eastern Studies
12 Nov. 2018
In the context of this piece, a puppet is a person, party, or state under the control of an external-political power. Puppetry, therefore, is being a tool to serve external powers. Coached by external powers, political puppets are extreme opportunists, who emerge in times of national crises. Political puppets know very well the cultural norms and values of the masses (weakest links); possess an insider-information on the political organization (e.g., the EPRDF); are shrewd manipulators and orators, capable of delivering motivational speeches of hate that dehumanize other citizens who stand on their way to political power (e.g., Abiy Ahmed, Mengistu Hailemariam, and Adolf Hitler); and are more than willing to be hired as double agents to work for external powers at large amounts of dollars. They are willing to sale their own Motherland. Let us have a look at selected historical facts that reveal tragedies of playing puppetry. We can learn a lot from these facts. History matters a lot.
People of Tigray is a people who know its territorial borders, with
unequivocal clarity. A People, who does not have a shred of doubt on its
identity and territorial borderlines. It is a People, who cannot, has
never had, and will never, in all possible imaginations, have the remotest
of doubts on its identity and territorial borderlines; and it is a People
who has concretely, laid out its strategic lines of struggle for Tigrean
national integrity and sovereignty.
Praise for Dr/Professor Ghelawdewos Araia
Over the last three weeks, we have been flooded with numerous emails to express your appreciation and support to Dr. Ghelawdewos Araia contribution on the going democratic process in Africa in particular Ethiopia.
We at Ethiopian Observer would like to share our heartfelt gratitude to all of you who participated in our praise project for Dr. Ghelawdewos Araia. After we announced the Praise initiative, we managed to collect earlier statements in admiration of Professor Ghelawdewos and we also received some praises directly sent to Ethiopian Observer, some of which are presented below in chronological order.
As we have stated in our first announcement, Dr. Ghelawdewos Araia is “a man of integrity with unshakable principled stands on issues surrounding the liberation and freedom of the African people in general and the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ethiopia; above all, he is one of the high caliber Ethiopian scholars who for decades presented highly educational and balanced articles, essays, book reviews, blurbs, and commentaries.” Now, we are gratified that our evaluation of the professor, in fact, is well endorsed and corroborated by the many people who responded to our call.
DICTATORS ARE NOT BORN, BUT MOLDED AND SHAPED
Tecola W. Hagos, 2 October 2018
Our Ethiopia is in big trouble. And we have a leader who is more interested in the trappings of Power and does not seem to understand his unique role as a leader of a country going through tremendous difficulties. It is time to remove such a leader and install a practical local-grounded individual. I want a sensitive, resolute, and visionary leader not someone who is fascinated by his recent toy (B787 Jetliners). Abiy Ahmed is a tragedy, despite all this suffering, he has not even established an emergency Commission especially dedicated to tackle the tumultuous displacements, killings, lootings et cetera all over the country.
Professor Desta, Asayehgn
In order to halt a late 2015 wave of anti-government protest and eventually stimulate political and socio-economic reforms, Ethiopians elected Dr. Abiy (hereafter referred as Abiy) Prime Minister of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia on April 2, 2018. After six months in power, instead of facilitating a peaceful and democratic pathway, Abiy appears more focused on self-aggrandizing and enhancing his popularity. By ignoring the parameters and ideological premises of the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) in favor of various opposing groups, Abiy seems to further balkanize the Ethiopian state by opening a political can of worms.
is a great nation that has proved to itself and the world its resilience
against trying circumstances and outright colonial attempts and
subjugations. For this reason and other factors, the country remained a
jewel in the crown for Africa and pride as well as symbol of independence
for the Black Diaspora. Ironically, however the present generation of
Ethiopians seem to suffer from amnesia to the greatness of Ethiopia and
the patriotic pan-Ethiopian agenda of its forebears, and on the contrary
they have wittingly or unwittingly embraced narrow ethno-national
proclivities and practices; hence, the present ethnic-warfare that has
afflicted much of Ethiopia.
In light of the barbaric and horrifying murders, rapes, dehumanizing treatments and looting of ethnic minorities in the suburbs of Addis Ababa on two consecutive days of 15 and 16 of September 2018, much has been written by journalists, and heart wrenching statements were also made by individuals who lived through the horrors. Similar attacks on minorities had been the characteristic feature of PM Abiy Ahmed’s reign of ineffective governance since his ascendance to the premiership “throne” on 2 April 2018.
there is a narcissist Prime Minister who is more concerned about his personal fame and self-aggrandizement than the peace and stability of his Country and the security and welfare of his people and who is busy making useless and non-stop domestic and foreign visits (shirshirs) while his people are being slaughtered by armed thugs and terrorists, our domestic "ISIS" and his Country is being burned.”
The removal of PM Abiy Ahmed from office is necessary and legitimate in order to save Ethiopia from lasting damage and disintegration.
Press freedom remains elusive in
Ethiopia By Abraham Fisseha ADDIS ABABA, May 1 (AFP) — Freedom of the press in Ethiopia has remained as elusive as ever since the current government overthrew dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam in May 1991, Ethiopian media experts and lawyers said ahead of Monday’s World Press Freedom Day.
"After the current government came to power more than a decade ago, press freedom has become increasingly elusive and the talk of it has only been for the consumption of international donors and financial institutions to attract their fundings," communications analyst Assefa Chewaka said.
Will the largest dam in Africa ever be completed?
The multi-billion dollar project has been dogged by disputes and delays.
The Grand Renaissance Dam being built by Ethiopia along the Nile is slated to be the largest hydroelectric power plant in Africa upon its completion.
But the multi-billion dollar project, which Ethiopia says is vital for its future economy, has been dogged by disputes and delays.
Egypt and Sudan also rely on the river Nile. Although Ethiopian leaders deny the dam will cause water shortages, farmers in Egypt fear they will have less water to irrigate their fields.
Talks between the countries have been deadlocked for months, and leaders have vowed to iron out their differences peacefully.Presenter: Elizabeth Puranam Guests:Timothy Kaldas - TIMEP political analysis,Yohannes Gedamu - political science lecturer, Georgia Gwinnett College,Harry Verhoeven - professor of government, Georgetown University
Source: Al Jazeera News
FINIAN CUNNINGHAM | 02.09.2018 | WORLD / AFRICA
Ethiopia – Breaking the Dam for Western Debt Slavery
Ethiopia’s new Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed is moving quickly to open up the strategic Horn of Africa country to Western capital. But far from the move being seen as a progressive reform, many Ethiopians and observers are concerned that the new direction is leading the nation into “debt slavery”.
This is where the timing of the new World Bank funds earmarked for Ethiopia is suspicious. Those funds are likely to go into the coffers of a foreign contractor appointed to replace METEC. But it will be the Ethiopian nation that is saddled with paying off the “loan” – a debt which up to this juncture it has not had to contend with.
In June, Ethiopia’s Abiy made his first foreign trip to Cairo where he was warmly received by President Abdel Fattah el Sisi. There was a remarkable change of position, with the Ethiopian leader giving assurances that the dam would be delayed to suit Egypt’s interests. Ethiopian sources noted how the PM recited a Muslim prayer to the Egyptian leader by way of giving assurance.
– Breaking the Dam for Western Debt Slavery
Are Ethiopia and Eritrea moving towards federation?
By Sal Younis
The first thing to say about this is that both the government of Ethiopia and Eritrea (in the person of Isaias Afwerki ONLY) had expressed their desire for this as early as 1993. Actually, shortly after Eritrea’s referendum on independence was held, Reuters reported (on May 3, 1993) that then-President Meles Zenawi “did not rule out confederation, a view shared by Eritrean leader Isayas Afewerki.” The second thing to say about this is that, on the merits, this may very well be the best arrangement for Eritreans and Ethiopians, but that’s hardly the point. The third thing to say about it, which will be the focus of this article, is that the author’s objection to it is that it is being done, at least from the perspective of Eritreans,
Skyscrapers, trains and roads: How Addis Ababa came to look like a Chinese city
China's credit line to Africa has provoked criticism. Earlier this year, Rex Tillerson, then US Secretary of State, said that China's "predatory loan practices" in Africa "mire nations in debt and undercut their sovereignty, denying them their long-term, self-sustaining growth."
Ethiopia has taken at least $12.1 billion from Chinese creditors since 2000. But overall the country is $29 billion in the red -- it owes more collectively to the Middle East, the World Bank and others than to China. The same is true for the majority of African countries.
Envisioning Ethiopia’s Future
Professor Desta, Asayehgn
On the other hand, Abiy’s vision seems populist, evangelical and non-operational. Abiy’s concept of “Medemer” is too vague and his concept of MEDEMAR has become a laughable concept. Opposing his own party, the OPDO, Abiy seems to be entertaining the formation of a centralized Federal system in Ethiopia. For example, he intervened to dismantle the leadership structures of the autonomous regional Ethiopian Somaliland and the Southern region rather than allowing them to solve their domestic problems.
Why Ethiopians believe their new prime minister is a prophet
By Jenni Marsh, CNN
Ahmed Shide, minister of government communication affairs, did not reply to CNN's request for comment. Abiy did not reply to multiple CNN requests for
interview. perhaps the biggest concern is that "Abiymania," and the faith it confers, will blind Ethiopians to the potential flaws of their leader, and weaken the democratic process. Natasha Ezrow, a professor in the department of government at Essex University in England, says: "We should be cautious of leaders who emerge and appear to be a messiah for everybody." Ethiopia, she adds, has "no institutions for democracy" and is "used to a strong man." Unless Abiy implements significant checks on his own power, then it will be hard to avoid a dictatorship, she says.
GERD might not see light: Ethiopian PM
Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed announced on Saturday that Ethiopia’s Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) might not be completed, the Ethiopian News Agency (ENA) reported.
In a press conference, Ahmed said the project was scheduled to be completed in five years, but was unable due to the failed administration as well as meddling from the Metal and Engineering Corporation (METEC), a company under the management of the Ethiopian Defense Forces.
Future of Ethiopia: Developmental State or Political Marketplace?
Alex de Waal
I find much of the commentary on Ethiopia’s current predicament to be
polarized, generalized or not sufficiently attuned to the specifics of the
country’s recent history. In my case, one prism through which I
interpret Ethiopian developments is the analysis derived from numerous
discussions that I had with Meles Zenawi between 1988 and 2012. I
initially developed the framework of the ‘political marketplace’ as a
critique of Meles’s theory of the ‘democratic developmental state’.
In particular, I saw monetized or marketized politics as a threat to the
stateled developmental order that Meles envisioned: I argued that as well
as the two scenarios he envisaged, namely economic transformation versus a
relapse into poverty and chaos, there was a third: a political
Ethiopia’s Political Trajectory: From Meles to Abiy Ahmed. By Teodros Kiros (Ph.D.) 08/22/2018
Meles and his idea of the Developmental State had put Ethiopia on the modernity project, the central ideas of which can be summarized as follows.
The development of the Ethiopian nation must be assumed as the defining task of the State. The State must guide all the necessary components of a functional state, the economy with its central institutions including the banks, education, infrastructure and parts of civil society. All the subordinate parts of the state must follow directives articulated by the state and then processed by the appropriate functionaries of the state, most particularly the bureaucrats.
Torpedoing Africa, and then complaining about 'migration'
European countries are still shaping the lives of millions of Africans, determining both their present and future. Lorenzo Kamel by Lorenzo Kamel
Out of the 67 coups in 26 African countries in the last 50 years, 61 percent took place in former French colonies. Fifty percent of the monetary reserves of 14 African countries are still today under full French control: none of them has any control over its macroeconomic and monetary policy. France makes billions of euros from Africa annually under the form of "reserves", and lend part of the same money to its owners on market rates.
Instead of tackling these epochal challenges and acknowledging that 87 percent of world refugees are hosted in low and middle-income countries, a number of European politicians and millions of average citizens have chosen the "easiest path": they are invoking a Europe-wide alliance against "mass immigration", or, more precisely, quoting Italy's Interior Minister Matteo Salvini, "a League of the Leagues of Europe, bringing together all the free and sovereign movements that want to defend their people and their borders".
Vision and the Politics of Ethiopianity: The leadership of Abiy Ahmed. By Teodros Kiros (Ph.D.
I would like to begin below with what I wrote on Ethiopianity and Independent Thinking a few years ago to frame my present argument that Ethnic consciousness is mediated by positive ethnicity and National Consciousness and that the two are inextricably intertwined. I argue further that ethnic consciousness, anchored on positive ethnicity, is the material infrastructure for the superstructure of culture. By Positive Ethnicity, I understand, “a modality in which an individual humbly takes pride in one’s geographical belonging and celebrates the cultural ornaments of his/ethnic group, the language, the dances, the music and the cuisines, as expressions of diversity.” (Abbay Media, Zehabesha, Ethiopia 360, January 9, 2018
Ethiopia in Turmoil of US, Saudi-Backed Coup, Not ‘Reforms’
Nearly five months after a change in power in Ethiopia, the country is witnessing an outbreak of deadly communal violence in several regions. The surge in conflict has come after many years of political stability in the Horn of Africa nation, stirring fears that the country may be facing widespread chaos and even
break-up. There have also been other deadly clashes in southern, central and western regions. Notably, the sparse Western media coverage tends to depict the violence as occurring in spite of “reformist” Abiy Ahmed. Whereas, more accurately, the surge in violence appears to be the responsibility of the new ruling faction around the prime minister.
Political Leadership and Political Economy in Contemporary Ethiopian Politics
Ghelawdewos Araia, PhD August 16, 2018
As far as I am concerned, politics is not just about power although the latter is, without doubt, the unit currency in leadership and governance. Politics is the administration of the state and the people, and the sources for the legitimacy of power are the people. On top of my definition of politics, a political leader for me is one who is farsighted, visionary, creative, innovative, change agent, and one who (s/he) is really committed to the people. On top of these qualities, the individual and/or collective leadership ought to revive the glory of Ethiopia (its ancient and medieval civilizations), not only for the sake of pride and psychological satisfaction, but also to use it as a fulcrum to mobilize Ethiopians toward forging their country into an industrial hub and economic success.
Ethiopia Violence A Concern Despite Reform Promises
Government Should Address Killings in Somali and Oromia Regions
Maria Burnett Director, East Africa and the Horn
In Jijiga, capital of the restive Somali region, a youth group known as Heego, which is loyal to the region’s former president Abdi Illey, and the region’s paramilitary Liyu police carried out attacks earlier this month that left many people dead. The Ethiopian Orthodox church said eight of its churches were burned, and more than 15 people, including 7 priests, were killed. Hundreds of people reportedly took shelter in a church compound after their homes were destroyed. The Ethiopian Human Rights Commission said its Jijiga office was also attacked, with offices burned and staff beaten. Officials said they believe the attackers were trying to stop the Commission’s recent investigation into human rights abuses in the area.
UAE Plans Pipeline From Ethiopia To Eritrea In Latest Horn of Africa Move
by Reuters|Maggie Fick & George Obulutsa
NAIROBI, Aug 10 (Reuters) - The United Arab Emirates plans to build an oil pipeline connecting Eritrea and Ethiopia, the latest sign of the Gulf state's increasing involvement in the Horn of Africa.
The pipeline will run from Eritrea's port city of Assab to Ethiopia's capital Addis Ababa, an Ethiopian official said.
Landlocked Ethiopia began extracting crude oil on a test basis from reserves in the country's southeast in June and will need access through Eritrea in order to export it.
Ethiopian broadcaster Fana first reported the pipeline plan earlier on Friday following a meeting in Addis Ababa between Ethiopia Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed and Reem Al Hashimy, the UAE's minister of state for international cooperation.
PM Abiy Ahmed is not the leader we all thought Godsend. This is not something personal, for I like Abiy Ahmed as an individual. However, in such short period since his visit here in the United States, much has come to light that has made me to look at the current Leaders far more closely and objectively, and I find them lacking and dangerous to the very existence of Ethiopia as a nation.
I heard Abiy Ahmed repeatedly making totally misleading and insulting remarks about the struggle of members of the TPLF in the prolonged fight of seventeen years waged against Mengistu Hailemariam, the brutal genocidal coward who run off stealing millions when he realized of the eminent defeat of his poorly lead Army in 1991. Abiy Ahmed with his convoluted sense of historical facts about the sacrifices of tens of thousands of TPLF warriors, disparaged the entire Tygrean population with
insightful words and phrases such as የቀን ጅቦች Yeken Jiboach. The age-old wisdom expressed in the Amharic
language tells us the time tasted truth that once there is a serious crack
in a glassware, no amount of mending can restore it to its original use.By analogy, if there is a serious breach of trust in a tightly held
organization, that organization will not survive in its original form.ብርሌከነቃአይሆንምዕቃ።
I was in Addis Ababa when Abunna Markorios, the former Patriarch of Ethiopia fled the country. If Ato Tamrat’s testimony is that he left the country under duress, it is far from the truth. Abunna MArkorios happened to have been a very passive Patriarch who failed to defend the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. The Patriarch before him, Abunna Tewoflos was murdered by Derg, the military junta and buried on the threshold of the palace and Abunna MArkarios did not raise a finger. When EPRDF entered Addis Ababa after it toppled the military, the patriarch was in a state of panic and sought shelter at American Embassy.
Church, which stands at a crossroads. It has taken a step on the wrong
path; it could pull back the starting foot into the cross in order to
rethink, dialogue and discuss to reach a better consensus. Should it
ignore the red flags and proceed on the path it is about to start, the
institutional values and respect accorded it will vanish.
Reconciliation Efforts Must Speed Up to Defuse Tensions in Ethiopia
August 04, 2018 11:54 AM
The UN refugee agency is ramping up life-saving aid to nearly one million people displaced by violence in southwestern Ethiopia and is urging accelerated reconciliation efforts to defuse tensions in the region.
As its name implies, the UN refugee agency's mandate is to assist and protect refugees. But, at the request of the Ethiopian government, it is extending its humanitarian support to include the nearly one million Ethiopians internally displaced by intercommunal violence in the Gedeo and West Guji areas.
Ethiopia's Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed has been in power for only four months but already he has signed a peace deal with Eritrea and released political prisoners. Sputnik spoke to Negasi Tesfaye, a political observer in Addis Ababa, about what lies behind the changes.
"Behind the scenes there was definitely involvement of the US State Department and the United Arab Emirates in orchestrating a ‘soft coup' in Ethiopia to expel the Chinese from the Horn of Africa and punish Djibouti for expelling (Dubai-owned) DP World (which had run its container terminal)," Mr. Tesfaye told Sputnik."There's also rumors that security guards and a chauffeur were removed from Bekele just days before he was killed. He was ordered not to give interviews according to some social media users, which explains why he sounds so nervous in his final interview in BBC Amharic just one day before his murder," Mr. Tesfaye told Sputnik.
2018/2019 Planning, Land Use & Zoning Committee
Planning, Land Use, and Zoning Committee Special Meeting - Public Hearing 7/31/18
Agenda: Chair's Report; CF 314346: University of Washington Major Institution Master Plan - presentation & public hearing.
Ethiopians want love and forgiveness. But they want justice too
In its long history, Ethiopia has seen a few political contours. These range from politics based on alleged divine will to scientific materialism – as a rejection of divine ascription – and to ethno-linguistic politics. While political personalities greatly differed from one another, one can legitimately argue that authoritarianism, the use of force and fear as a means of governing was common to all of them.
The language of love and reconciliation also colours his diplomatic agenda. His positive message of togetherness has won friendship with Djibouti, Sudan, South Sudan, Somaliland and even Eritrea.
Doubtless, this approach is his greatest strength. Because of it, he has amassed political
capital both at home and abroad. But, it could be his greatest weakness too. There are those who oppose him and are prepared to use violence to stop his reform agenda, and render the country ungovernable. Besides sporadic ethnic clashes, there have been some high profile assassinations (and an attempted
assassination) that remained shrouded in mystery.
26, 2018 or Hamle 19, 2010 (EC) will be remembered as the saddest day in
Ethiopian history. The great Engineer and hero Simegnew Bekele has fallen
victim to the enemies of Ethiopia who hired mercenaries to do their
mission in obstructing and if possible halting the completion of the GERD.
Ethiopia indeed has lost one of her brightest and brave sons, but the paid
agents and the sponsoring governments (or political groups) are too naïve
and too shortsighted to entertain such a foolish idea of deterring
Ethiopians from completing the Dam by just shooting and killing the chief
Human beings are not numerical values, variables, nor symbols. Thus, PM Abiy’s analogy of medemer
(መደመር) is not appropriate. For example, it adds horrible ex-Derg Officials along with members and leaders of Terrorist Organizations into the mix with innocent and upright Ethiopians.
Kassa Kebede, a pathological liar, asserted that he had heard I was involved in the nationalization of his residential property. I did no such thing. I advocated for the return of residential properties including investment real-estate to the owners, at the time I was in the Transitional Government in 1991-1992. He also boasted that he would have had United States Citizenship if he had wanted. Not in a million years, for the immigration Laws of the United States and the Government policies are strict to granting Citizenship to individuals with backgrounds of membership in political organizations that practiced extra judicial executions, mass detentions, torture et cetera and especially those who were at the highest leadership structure.
The African leaders hailed, in particular, the UAE's role in establishing security and stability in the Horn of Africa region.Eritrean and Ethiopian leaders have thanked the UAE and Saudi Arabia for their contribution in ending years of conflict between the two African countries. The UAE and Saudi Arabia "spared no effort" to help the two neighbouring countries reestablish good relations for the sake of their people and the wider region, the leaders said.
This cameat the end of an official tripartite meeting in Abu Dhabi between His Highness Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi and Deputy Supreme Commander of the UAE Armed Forces; Isaias Afwerki, President of Eritrea; and Dr Abiy Ahmed, Prime Minister of Ethiopia.
Eritrean Port of Massawa Ready to Give Services to Ethiopia
Addis Ababa, Jul 24 (Prensa Latina) Eritrea prepared the port of Massawa to contribute to the flow of Ethiopian import and export of basic products.
The Ethiopian Herald newspaper reviewed in its digital version statements by the director of the Port Administration of that marine enclave, Layne Asfahaley, who pointed out that an intensive phase of renovation of infrastructures has concluded to adequately fulfill those purposes.
A delegation from the Ethiopian business community also made a visit there to assess the situation of the port, which this nation could not use for 20 years after the break of relations with
It became a mode of operand to spread false news for this newly created ethnocentric demagoguery YouTube media called Voice of Amhara, Ethio Media Forum and Tena adam internet radio. Your forum should not be a conduit to hate mongers to spew hate and propaganda. With no evidence what amounted to smear campaign faceless and fast-moving assault on the integrity of SebHidri members and organization. Sebhidri was born out of the heroic concern of Tigreans; our name should not be teetered by cyber foot soldiers to trash smear campaign.
The purpose of our organization is to tackles development deficits by building the institutions necessary for good governance and ensuring genuine participation in a democracy in our Tigrai, to ensure that there is effective participation, transparency, responsiveness, consensus orientation, equity, inclusiveness and accountability. These are values which form the bedrock of our democracy.
Time heals time kills: there is strategic time for every action humans take. It was strategic decision of the Tigrai Peoples’ Liberation Front (TPLF) that led to the creation of the Ethiopian Peoples’ Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). After liberating Tigrai from the savagery of Mengistu Hailemaraim’s military junta, the Derg, TPLF decided to liberate the whole Ethiopia. To that end, the Amhara National Democratic Movement (ANDM), the Oromo Peoples’ Democratic Organization (OPDO), the Southern Ethiopia Peoples’ Democratic Movement (SEPDM), and the TPLF forged a coalition called EPRDF. As the name implies, EPRDF is “a liberation front” formed to defeat a common enemy, the Derg.
Is Ethiopia on the brink?
July 18, 2018 Written by MOSES KHISA
The country may well be on the brink of the most fundamental turnaround in its politics and economics. Ethiopia’s modern political history can be roughly divided into three major periods: the monarchy’s imperial rule, briefly overthrown by the Italians in 1935 but restored after World War II until Emperor Haile Selassie was ignominiously deposed in 1974; the bloody military junta period of Colonel Mengistu Hailemariam who cleverly hijacked the popular revolution of 1974 but was overthrown in 1991; and finally the era since 1991 of ‘revolutionary democracy’ but which in practice was blunt authoritarianism under Meles Zenawi.
I recovered from watching in the Internet the dazzling, completely
exhausting, and emotionally draining events of the visit by PM Abiy Ahmed
of Asmara/Eritrea, now I am dealing with no less exhausting and
emotionally draining events of the historic visit by Pres Issaias Afeworki
of Addis Ababa/Ethiopia, which was just concluded. As PM Abiy emphasizes
often, the process of healing starts with forgiveness and reconciliation.
And I may add that the sheer joy of being in the home of a long-sought
after Family member would seal the familial bond all over again. I did find some annoying behavior by PM Abiy, in
an otherwise positive week, in what seems to be a deliberate exclusion of
TPLF’s Representatives from visibility in such public ceremonies of
welcome. The new PM Abiy’s
Government and the official Ethiopian broadcasting professionals seem to
be very narrowly partisans against Tygreans not just the TPLF. There seems
to be a very nasty undercurrent against TPLF and by extension against
Tygreans in the current extremely exaggerated expression of friendship to
Issaias Afeworki and to Eritreans.
geology value of oil shale deposits: Ethiopia
(Tigray) and Jordan
Yohannes Yihdego, Hilmi S. Salem, Bediaku G. Kafui
& Zarko Veljkovic
Oil shale is an organic-rich, fine-grained sedimentary rock, containing kerogen, from which liquid hydrocarbons (called shale oil) can be produced. The oil shale deposits in the Tigray region are found in the northern parts of Ethiopia, Eastern Africa. They are of Upper Paleozoic in age, existing as remnants of the Cretaceous erosion period, underlain by tillites and overlain by sandstones. They were formed during the glacial retreat followed by marine deposition of shales in a basin created by the enormous load of the glaciers. The Ethiopian-Tigray oil shale deposits cover an area extending over approximately 30 km2, with an average mineable bed-thickness of 55 m, showing on the upper part inter-beds and laminations of shaley limestones. The oil shale resources in this region are estimated to be approximately 4 billion tonnes. The exploitation of the Ethiopian-Tigray oil shale deposits is an excellent alternative to fulfill the fuel and other petroleum products’ demand of Ethiopia. This study sheds light on the oil shale resources in the Ethiopian region of Tigray, as they are fairly investigated, regarding their geological characterization, and future strategies for their exploration and exploitation
There are several variations of the proverbial that express similar sentiment as in the title of this article. One that comes readily to mind is the expression “Tell me your friends and I will tell you who you are.” If we take that adage seriously, we would completely accept the surrealistic event that just happened in both Addis Ababa (earlier) and in Asmara in these past couple of days. I can see that I was wrong in undermining the two Leaders (PM Abiy Ahmed and Pres Issaias Afeworki) for I was totally wrong in writing my highly skeptical view about peace between Ethiopia and Eritrea due to the Border dispute. I am very glad that I was proven wrong in that peace and friendship is possible between Ethiopia and Eritrea. You both have proven to me that you both are far complex personalities and far more perceptive and truly courageous than I am. I am obviously making tautological statement here, for you are leaders of countries, and I am a sideshow scribbler who should know better to use his time productively. I owe you both an apology. Sorry for my hasty and harsh defeatist remarks.
As always, the Ethiopian phenomenon is complicated, complex, and shrouded in mystery to say the least. Given the admixture of a lingering feudal mode of thinking (the mode of production is done away with) with unpolished and haphazard modernity (considering the exposure of Ethiopians to Western values and technology), obscurantism in the Ethiopian political culture is not surprising. Hybrid politics, however, is dangerous because it tears apart Ethiopians between the archaic framework of thinking and the relatively science-based general orientation. Ethiopians, thus, are suspended between two irreconcilable poles, and adding fuel to the fire, the present generation of Ethiopians are even in a much worse condition for the following reasons:
CONTRA BORDER DEMARCATION:
REJECT THE ARBITRATION DECISIONS
No Land Locking of Ethiopia and Alienation of Ethiopian Citizens
By Tecola Worq Hagos Conclusion - Abstract:
a) High jacking the Prime Minister
The popularity of PM Dr Abiy Ahmed across all members of the Ethiopian society is quite impressive and uplifting. On a closer look of the phenomenon, I see some bizarre development in this unusual positive reaction to a leader rooted in the EPRDF. In the Diaspora communities of Ethiopians, the most enthusiastic supporters of PM Abiy in such groups seem to come from former Derg supporters and possibly Red Terror participants, ex-members of Mengistu’s security personnel, members of subversive movements,
Neoliberalism Imperialism Creating a Fragile Ethiopian State:
Foretelling Irreversible Tragedies
Part I Mogos Abraham, PhD Premise
Weakness, fragility, and failure of a governance system are sequenced sociopolitical and economic conditions that cause national tragedies. Consider, for example, the nation state of Somalia, Ethiopia’s immediate neighbor. It failed about 30 years ago to function as a nation of law and order; and remains a tragically failed country. Somalia has become a budgetary burden to the UN and the AU; and a peace and security nightmare to Ethiopia. By all indicators, Ethiopia appears to have passed the threshold of a weak state to a fragile state, approaching the tragedy of a failed state.
What is going on in Ethiopia? For no reason other than whom they are, hundreds of Ethiopians are being murdered and their properties being torched, while others are being uprooted and internally displaced. All these human miseries are happening, while the EPRDF regime is watching it all. EPRDF has become impotent completely. Why?
The construction industry - a key partner in the economic integration of the continent envisaged by the African Continental Free Trade Area
By Mokate Ramafoko, PPC Managing Director: International Operations
The world recently witnessed the signing of the biggest free trade area by Heads of African Governments in Kigali. Signed in March this year, the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) is the largest such free trade area when one considers the number of countries involved.
The African continent currently consists of 55 countries, with 55-odd currencies (some have chosen to adopt the US dollar), 55 regulatory frameworks and, in simple terms, 55 different sets of red tape. This scenario means doing business on the African continent can be challenging, both for foreign and domestic
The following two articles were authored by Dr. Ghelawdewos Araia , and
for readers and researchers interested to fully understand the essence of
the articles and also to make reflections on the Border Commission
decision following the Algiers Agreement between Ethiopia and Eritrea in
2000, it is imperative to read: 1) No amount of jubilation can hide
Ethiopia’s territorial loss (2002); 2)The “Alternative Mechanism”
Should Uphold Ethiopian Sovereignty and Territorial Integrity (2003) and
the links for the above titles respectively are: http://ethiomedia.com/commentary/ghelawdewos_on_border_ruling.html
be recalled The Tigrean International Solidarity for Justice and Democracy
held its 4th annual conference on August 21, 2004 in Washington D.C. The
conference dealt with the border issue in great detail. A very important
paper was presented by his Excellency Ato Belai Abay on the situation of
the border issue. Solidarity's struggle with the core of the ideals for
the last 2 years was that Meles acted as an agent appointed to destroy
Ethiopia, and that he has secretly signed an agreement with Shaebia to
cede vast territories from Tigrai and Afar. No
matter what Meles policy promoters disseminate, the noose is around their
neck. Now an inch of an Ethiopian sovereign land can cost them an end to
the life in politics. The time has come and the deceit is crumbling like a
house of cards. Many Scholars exposed the sinister motive of Meles Zenawi
and Co. In this research paper the author exposed the 1977 territorial
agreement between EPLF which outlined the specific areas the TPLF agreed
upon. You judge for yourself after reading the research paper that
history, no matter how much spin is done, the truth still comes out.
observer editors believes the article is still relevant to highlight the betrayal
The United Nations’ new Secretary General Ban Ki-moon stated on 6 November 2007 that the Eritrean Government’s deployment of its forces and militarization of the Temporary Security Zone (TSZ) [here after “Buffer Zone”], which Zone was to be kept free of militarization by the Eritrean government as part of the peace process pursuant to the 2000 Algiers Agreement, was a violation of that peace agreement. A year earlier, the previous Secretary General Cofi Annan stated before he left office that Eritrea had violated the Peace Treaty by moving tanks and its soldiers in the Buffer Zone. There is no question that the Eritrean Government has violated both the letter and spirit of the 2000 Algiers Agreement. There are numerous instances where there have been violations by the Eritrean Government of the 2000 Algiers Agreement since it signed that agreement seven years ago.
The Association of Gedeo Community in North America and Europe
Gedeo cleansing in West-Guji and Guji Zone of Oromia region has to stop
have been optimistic about the current political atmosphere and the fresh
air of hope flowing in the country since you have assumed the premier
position. We understand that you came to this position at the very
critical time where ethnic tensions were high, state apparatuses were
collapsing, and the country was on the crossroad. Thousands have lost
their lives and their properties and become a victim of massive
displacement because of the mal-governance of the local administrators.
Unfortunately, however, this ethnic cleansing and massive displacement
steadily continued to happen in Ethnic Gedeos who have been living in
Oromia region for the millennials.
44 African economies signed in March an ambitious treaty in order to form the African Continental Free Trade Area
(AfCFTA). The goal is to eliminate tariffs on 90% of goods. The rationale behind more regional integration is to trade between
equals and limit the share of vertical trade (exports of commodities and imports of capital). It should help ascend the
value chain and increase the share of manufactured goods in African exports, since manufactured goods represent 43% of
intra-African exports and less than 20% of African exports to other regions (75% is driven by commodities). The current predominance
of commodity exports makes growth procyclical to commodity prices. Sizeable output volatility deters economic
Ethiopia finally recognises 2000 border ruling with Eritrea
By Robert Hackwill
Eritrea invaded, and tens of thousands died or were taken prisoner on both sides.
Eritrea had been a province of Ethiopia until a 1993 referendum established independence. Eritrean fighters had helped in the overthrow of Ethiopia's military dictatorship and fought a 30-year war of independence. The country's creation transformed Ethiopia into a landlocked country.
Gratification and Gratitude for the Reemergence of Pan-Ethiopian Agenda & Discerning the Invisible Hand in Ethiopian Politics: Special Message to PM Abiye Ahmed
Ghelawdewos Araia, PhD May 26, 2018
The main title of the article is pretty much clear; the companion title, however, is not quite obvious and intelligible, but I will make it comprehensible to the reader when I delve into the current Ethiopian politics. As always, I will try to be objective and fair in my overall analysis and investigative discourse pertaining to the recent political change in Ethiopia.
The TGE’s policy of Kilil and self-determination is commendable, but the consequence of fragmentation as a result of new wave of ethnic political consciousness, and the inability of some minority nationalities to become economically and politically viable, would ultimately preoccupy Ethiopians to otherwise unforeseen
his most recent article entitled Gratification
and Gratitude for the Reemergence of Pan-Ethiopian Agenda, Dr.
Ghelawdewos Araia proposed, among many other suggestions he presented, the
erection of the fallen obelisk of Aksum. Professor Ghelawdewos is a
leading Ethiopian scholar in education, international studies, political
economy, and history, and a prolific writer on contemporary and current
issues; he has contributed hundreds of scholarly works, not to mention his
books on Ethiopia in English, Amharic, and Tigrigna. He also has written
extensively on areas pertaining to his field of expertise mentioned above.
What makes Dr. Ghelawdewos different from other writers is that his
writings are objective, balanced, educational, and original; and with this
unique style and integrity, he has been producing articles that reflect
divergent issues and that could be considered blue prints for discussion
forums, researchers, and individual readers. On top of this, Dr. Araia is
the founder and president of the Institute of Development and Education
for Africa (IDEA).
Professor Desta, Asayehgn
Against odds, Ethiopian patriots won a decisive victory over the aggressive colonial Italian army at the battle of Adwa on March 1, 1896. Consequently, the Battle of Adwa helped Ethiopia maintain its sovereignty while inspiring other African countries that had been defeated and divided by European colonizers. After the victory, Ethiopia served as a role model for the entire black race, even inspiring other colonized countries worldwide to repulse aggression with dignity and to assert their own independence. For instance, Japan employed several of Ethiopia’s heroic strategies from the Battle of Adwa to liberate itself from Russia’s aggression in 1904 (Levine, 2014). More importantly, the Battle of Adwa forced the Italian invaders to shed their long-held and false illusions about the black race.
Obama Foundation Announces New Program to Train Emerging Leaders Across Africa
The Obama Foundation has announced a new addition to its international programs: the Obama Foundation Leaders: Africa.
This one-year leadership development and civic engagement program will train and support 200 promising young leaders across Africa working in government, civil society, and the private sector. The Foundation received nearly 10,000 applications for 200 slots.
The Obama Foundation Leaders: Africa program will launch in Johannesburg, South Africa with a five-day convening. The convening will run from July 14 through July 18 and include plenary sessions, problem-solving workshops, and technical trainings that will help these young emerging leaders drive positive change throughout Africa.
Exiled Ethiopian Dictator Credited For Masterminding November Coup With Chiwenga That Ousted Mugabe
Exiled and fallen Ethiopian autarch, Mengistu Haile Mariam, who is thought to have had an invisible hand in last November’s Operation Restore Legacy, which was launched by the military to oust former leader, Robert Mugabe, has had his secret kingmaker powers in Zimbabwe increased following his alleged closet appointment and promotion as Vice President Rtd General Constantino Chiwenga’s special advisor, Spotlight Zimbabwe, can exclusively reveal.
It remains to be seen what will happen to him now that his host, Robert Mugabe, has been removed from power.The former cabinet minister also said it was Mengistu who had also suggested to Chiwenga not to completely “retire” from the ZDF, but to retain power and control of the military by running the ministry of
defense, and taking care of the liberation war veterans to consolidate influence and position himself for ultimate takeover of the presidency when the time comes.
Ethiopia Calls on London Museum to Repatriate Objects Looted 150 Years Ago
The call, by Ethiopia’s ambassador for the UK, followed a suggestion earlier this month by the director of the Victoria & Albert Museum that the objects could be given on long-term loan.
Earlier this month, the Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A) offered to return, on
long-term loan, objects to Ethiopia that British troops looted 150 years ago. The arrangement was proposed ahead of an exhibition showing the museum’s collection of treasures seized at Maqdala. But the Ethiopian government says that such a gesture is not sufficient, and that it will continue to seek permanent return of the artifacts.Claire Voon
Ethiopia says British museum must permanently return its artifacts
ADDIS ABABA (Reuters) - Britain must permanently return all artifacts from Ethiopia held by the Victoria and Albert Museum and Addis Ababa will not accept them on loan, an Ethiopian government official said.
The call comes after the museum, one of London’s most popular tourist attractions, put Ethiopian treasures plundered by British forces on display.
“Well, it would be exciting if the items held at the V&A could be part of a long-term loan with a cultural institution in Ethiopia,” museum director Tristram Hunt said.
Ethiopian businesses let down by new PM’s stance April 24 2018
By Aaron Maasho And Maggie Fick/Addis Ababa
Local business leaders at a banquet in Ethiopia’s capital last week were hoping the new Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed would tell them he planned to loosen the state’s grip on the economy.
He took power on April 2 promising a “new political beginning”. But four people who heard his dinner speech said he signalled he would stick with policies to keep the government’s hand in sectors such as infrastructure, banking and
telecoms. Ethiopia has let foreign companies such as fashion chain H&M set up factories in a decade-long push to change the economic focus from agriculture exports, such as coffee, to manufacturing.
Last Tuesday, March 27, 2018, the Ethiopian Broadcasting Corporation announced Dr. Abiy Ahmed’s landslide election to Chair the ruling party, the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). Voters elected Dr. Abiy assuming he was a progressive voice, a reformist, cue-taker, open to suggestion, and because he has a proven ability to divert profound social crises in his hometown, a point he developed into his doctoral dissertation.
Despite Prime Minister Hailemariam’s resignation and the public’s opposition to the government’s state of emergency declared in February 16, 2018 tailored to uphold the rule of law and stem a wave of anti-government protests, the Oromo youth’s anti-government protests that emerged in late 2015 and gradually spread to the northern part of the Amhara region of Ethiopia, demanding more political inclusion, economic equality and social justice. Thus, protesters temporarily suspended changes in decision-making process immediately after Dr. Abiy’s victory (Quartz Africa, Feb, 16, 2018).
at the Institute of Development and Education for Africa (IDEA) are
delighted to witness the launching of the continental free trade area that
would, in effect, supersede all existing regional blocs like ECOWAS, SADC,
COMESA, etc without contradicting or contravening the mission and
objectives of the latter. At long last, the Africa
must Unite motto of the 1958 Accra conference, then attended by only
eight independent African countries, will become a reality. On May26 1963,
the pan-African movement to unite Africa culminated in the signing of the
OAU Charter by 31 African countries. The OAU became AU (African Union) in
May 26 2001, and between the establishment of the Organization for African
Unity (OAU) and AU, a significant number of regional organizations were
founded, but the idea of integrating the entire continent was conceived
long before the AfCFTA was signed by forty-four African countries on March
21, 2018 at Kigali, Rwanda.
Peaceful reform will see Ethiopia through dynamic political moment Taye AtskeSelasie, ambassador of Ethiopia to Egypt
The article contains numerous factual errors and erroneous assumptions about Ethiopia — a country that prides itself on its diversity and the unity of its people. Leaving aside the sinister motivations one might insinuate from the
flavor and slant of the article — namely, the international misrepresentation of political realities for underlying geopolitical aspirations — I would rather focus on separating the facts from the falsehoods for the benefit of your readers.
These are the main challenges that the ruling party, the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), and the incoming prime minister will steadfastly address in an all-inclusive manner in the weeks and months to come.
The other point that is often based on fabrication and maliciously presented is the claim of the dominance of Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) within the EPRDF.
Tyranny of Size in a Fragile
Democracy: The Ethiopian Case
As pointed out in the introductory paragraph, blind faith in size has tragic consequences. The extremist elements do
not seem to be able to predict the hell their actions might take them, because their arrogance, ignorance, and monetary
greed have blinded them. These residual human elements do not hesitate to abuse and misuse the meaning of
democracy to fulfill their wild ambitions to dominate and subjugate other nations, nationalities, and peoples. They do
not understand that true democracy has multiple guiding principles, which include primacy of the rule of law,
accountability, transparency, collective decision-making, equality, collective voice (universal suffrage), civil liberties
and civil rights, strong nationalism, and obligations to serve the masses.
Dr. Ghelawdewos Araia shares his opinion on Ethiopia’s Political transition and future path after the recent resignation of its PM, domestic violence, and security challenges.
Dr. Araia, recently published an article recent and offered the following recommendations for the government to consider:
The Government and the legally operating opposition parties in Ethiopia should enter dialogue with the sole purpose of fostering national unity and retooling Ethiopian nationalism while at the same time
de-emphasizing ethnic politics. If this kind of national reconciliation is tried, it should be done in public in which the Ethiopian people also become participant-observers. This would also be a momentous historic event at unleashing a political culture of toleration and inclusiveness and a reflection of the ideals and sentiments of the Ethiopian nationhood.
Ethiopia: Work Round the Clock At GERD Site
By Tewodros Kassa
"It is an awe-inspiring experience to visit the construction site of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) at least for two reasons- you observe the commitment of the Engineers and workers with dropped jaws, and amble imagining that this place will form a huge water body in just few years."
The remark was given by Ethiopian Film Makers Association President, Desalegn Hailu, whom this reporter met last Sunday in a sightseeing event at GERD project site, Guba district of Benishangul Gumuz State.
Construction machinery such as excavators, dump-trucks... emits huge noises and everyone is working with sense of urgency, he recounted.
Their time reckoning system seems not to go with the usual one - readying oneself at dawn for work, and getting back to home at dusk.
ISS Today: Why the African Union needs a stable Ethiopia
African Union (AU) Commission chief Moussa Faki Mahamat has offered his services to the government of Ethiopia amid political upheaval in the country. After months of anti-government protests and security force action, the government earlier this year decided to release several political prisoners. Unrest, however, continues in several parts of the country.
Analysts agree that Ethiopia is traditionally far less susceptible to outside influence in its internal affairs than many other African countries. AU involvement in Ethiopia’s internal political situation doesn’t seem likely. A discussion of the situation in the 15-member AU Peace and Security Council that deals with conflicts on the continent has also never taken
Africa: Ethiopia's Stability Envisages Africa's Inclusive Development
By Zelalem Girma
As Ethiopia is the second most populous nation in Africa, its main challenges are sustaining its progressive economic growth and ensuring poverty reduction, which requires significant improvement in job creation and improved governance.
To make certain a comprehensive growth in the country, the government will need to improve its governance, empower local authorities, and become more accountable to its citizens, according to members of the diplomatic community.
Following the instabilities observed recently in some parts of the country, the government has declared a State of
Emergency (SoE) to protect losses of life and damages in properties as well as to adjust political reforms.
Water wars: Tensions build over a Nile dam in Ethiopia
THE EDITORIAL BOARD Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
A major drama is building in northeast Africa, among Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia, as Ethiopia nears completion of work on a large new dam on the Nile River.
Part of the Nile, known as the White Nile, rises in the mountains of Burundi, far south of Egypt in Africa. The Nile eventually pours into the Mediterranean Sea in the north of Egypt. The river has served as the stem of civilizations, dating from thousands of years ago. Its waters are absolutely critical to Egypt, upon which that country’s agriculture, electric power and internal transport are heavily dependent. Without its waters, more Egyptians would starve than do already.
Ethiopia has been building for years the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam at its border with Sudan. It’s on what is called the Blue Nile, the river’s other major tributary. The Blue Nile accounts for some 85 percent of the water flowing into the main Nile. Ethiopia is at the point of filling the huge reservoir behind the dam, already, in Egypt’s eyes, putting Egypt’s Nile waters at risk.
Inspiring: These Two Deaf Eritrean-Ethiopian Twins Are Breaking Barriers in the Fashion World
They both became mysteriously deaf at the same time when they were just 7 years old. However, these wonderful and beautiful fashion bloggers Hermon and Heroda Berhane never allowed their disabilities distract their purpose and vision in life.
With both now 34, the Eritrean-Ethiopian twin sisters have great and blossoming careers in modeling and acting as well as a fashion
blog. According to them, the mission is simple. “We want to tell people around the world that you should embrace disability, not hide from it,” the twins said in an email interview with CNN.
Misreading History and Political Science and the Exigency of Smooth Power Transition in Ethiopia
Ghelawdewos Araia, PhD February 18, 2018
In the last three to four years, Ethiopia has been in constant political turmoil, ranging from Gondar and Oromia incidents to the Oromo-Somali confrontations in South East Ethiopia, to the Woldia-Kobo-Mersa protestations and subsequent deaths of innocent Ethiopians. All these protestations, euphemistically called mass upheavals by some disgruntled Diaspora Ethiopian groupings, were actually ethnic-based and ethnic-hatred disturbances; I label them as disturbances because in any historical context, revolutionary and peoples’ uprisings do not destroy and/or burn public property. Moreover, the only mass upheaval that moved toward revolutionary insurrection in Ethiopia is that of 1974 (Yekatit 1966 Ethiopian Calendar) broad-based people’s uprising.
Irrespective of the current crisis, however, I believe Ethiopia will remain united and Tigray will not go anywhere because the concept and material force of ‘Ethiopia’ was conceived and born in Tigray. Certain groups may invoke Article 39 of the Constitution to separate Tigray from the rest of Ethiopia but they will not be successful because the majority of the people of Tigray would like to jealously guard the unity of Ethiopia and maintain Ethiopian national identity. In this context, thus, back in 2003 I tried to portray Tigray as an indivisible core of the Ethiopian nation-state, as shown below:
University Student Activism for Diversity Curricula
Desta, Sarlo Distinguished Professor of Sustainability Dominican University of
the dismantlement of the Military Junta—the “Derg”—in 1991, the
Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), a product of
the 1960s and 1970s, Addis Ababa University’s university student
movement and an adherent of Marxism and Leninism ideology came to power;
it vigorously embarked on actualizing the self -determination of the
various Nations, Nationalities and Peoples of Ethiopia. That is, in
contradiction to the socialization process of the ancient
regime and the military Junta who favored a centralized type of
government, after coming to power, the EPRDF propagated and endorsed an
ethnic-based federal type of government structure in Ethiopia
How Djibouti Became China's Gateway To Africa
Djibouti, one of Africa's smallest countries, has become China's "strategic partner." The Chinese have built a military base and a port, and is currently constructing a free trade zone, fast establishing it as Beijing's gateway to the continent.
A police car appears in a cloud of red dust on the dirt road between the boulders. A young man in uniform opens the window and starts grousing in French. The Chinese men he is rebuking don't understand any of it, but slowly realize where the anger is coming from. They had forgotten to register with the sentry guarding the entrance to the large construction site above the coast.
Managing Ethiopia's political crisis
by Goitom Gebreluel & Biniam Bedasso
7 Feb 2018
Nemera Mamo is a co-author of this article. He is a teaching fellow at SOAS, University of London.
Ethiopia has been experiencing recurrent mass protests, riots and ethnic conflicts over the past two years that have claimed the lives of thousands and displaced hundreds of thousands.
These events have led observers and members of the ruling Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) to conclude that the very survival of the Ethiopian state is at stake.
State collapse is so far an extreme and unlikely scenario given that the conflicting parties are internal actors in the system and have a vested interest in its survival. A more likely but still dangerous scenario is a long-term vicious cycle of political conflict and economic stagnation that cripples state and society.
problems of the Horn of Africa are frequently interlinked and often cross
international borders. The root causes of the conflicts include economic
inequality, political marginalization, poor governance, ethnic tension,
competition for scarce resources such as water and good land, periodic
drought and poverty.
Contributory factors are porous borders, widespread availability of arms,
corruption, a poor record by governments on human rights issues and
interference in the region by organizations and countries outside the
Horn. When you add the fact that the Horn is located on a religious fault
line, you have a recipe for frequent conflict. It has arguably been the
most conflicted corner of the world since the end of World War II. The
Horn has constantly posed a serious challenge for U.S. policy.
corruption 'eating away' at African economies
African foreign ministers meet in Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa
By Addis Getachew and Seleshi Tessema
ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia
Economic Commission for Africa Executive Secretary Vera Songwe has warned of widespread reaction from the youth to corruption in Africa, which is "eating away" at the continent's economies.
Songwe's remarks came during her speech at the executive council meeting of the African Union in Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa on Thursday.
As corrupt practices continue in Africa, including the illicit financial outflows from which Africa loses $50 billion annually, "the youth are watching", she
said." For Africa, we project a pickup in growth to 3.5 percent in 2018 and 3.7 percent in 2019, underpinned by strengthening external demand and a moderate increase in commodity prices," she added.
However, Songwe said, "the African Union itself has estimated that every year over $148 billion are drained out of the continent through various corrupt activities and acts, representing about 25 percent of Africa’s GDP growth.
Observing and Analyzing the New Egyptian-Ethiopian Accord with Cautious Optimism
Ghelawdewos Araia, PhD January 26, 2018
I am optimistic by nature, but given the jittery politics and unfathomable political discourse and diplomacy of the Egyptian leaders, I like to observe and analyze the recent meetings and subsequent agreement reached between Egypt and Ethiopia with cautious optimism. There is no doubt that both sides, that is, the Ethiopian and Egyptians diplomats, were satisfied by the outcome of the three-day meeting (beginning January 16, 2018) and discussions wrought in an effort to iron out differences. After he returned home, the Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn, for instance, told Ethiopian journalists that he was personally gratified with the agreements reached on various cooperative agendas; he underscored that both countries have agreed to cooperate in many sectors including agriculture, industry, health, education, and tourism. Beyond these sectors, both countries have also agreed to work together and create synergy in some (e.g. tourism) in sectors such as investment, mining, electricity, water resources, and culture.
Ethiopia could be sitting on one of world's great untapped gold deposits
January 24, 2018 by Liam Bullock, The Conversation
Our field observations and panning suggest that gold should be generally abundant across the Asoza zone – both in quartz veins but also elsewhere in the schist and pegmatite rocks in which they are located. We also see signs of substantial graphite deposits, which are important for everything from touch-screen tablets to lithium-ion batteries.
There is undoubtedly much more world-class gold within this area than has already been discovered, pointing to a promising source of income for the government for years to come – much of the region remains unexplored, after all. It probably is no exaggeration to say that Ethiopia's gold potential could rival South Africa's, which would put it somewhere around the top five gold producing nations in the world.
Ethiopia: U.S. Embassy Announces Solve IT! - A Nationwide Innovation
Solve IT! will involve nine city hubs in seven regional states and two city administrations
Distributed by APO Group on behalf of U.S. Embassy Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia, January 25, 2018/APO Group/ -- The U.S. Embassy in Addis Ababa is sponsoring a
nationwide innovation competition, “Solve IT!” for Ethiopian youth. “Solve IT!” promotes STEM, entrepreneurship and
encourages a new generation of young Ethiopians to solve problems in their communities using technology, software
and hardware. The competition is implemented by the U.S. Embassy in collaboration with partners iCog Labs and
Humanity plus. Solve IT! will involve nine city hubs in seven regional states and two city administrations: Addis Ababa, Dire
Dawa, Jimma, Bahir Dar, Mekelle, Gambela, Semera, Hawassa and Jigjiga are the selected cities.
Seven Historically African-American Universities That Are In Top Rankings
The seven historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) established before 1964 on the land of United States were especially meant for the education of black people only. The soul intention of building these institutions was to provide and promote the best education to the black community. Who knew in those times that the universities established for the black people would be the top educational institutions some day and for which even the royal communities will compete to get admission. Got confused? Here is the list of top seven universities of current times that are actually Black Universities.
The Ethiopian ambassador to Sudan Mulugeta Zewdie suggested that Egypt is turning the dispute over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) into a political issue, which he said is a technical matter.
In an interview with the Sudanese daily newspaper Sudan Vision, Zewdie accused some parties of transforming the GERD from a technical issue into a political issue, calling for political issues surrounding the dam to be avoided and to concentrate on the technical side set by experts from the concerned countries.
He expressed his surprise over the negative statements from Egyptian media outlets regarding GERD, describing the statements as an attempt to create agendas which are far from the reality.
South Seattle’s Ethiopian community has long thrived in neighborhoods like Rainier Beach, but North Seattle is a somewhat-newer area Ethiopians call home. In Pinehurst, at the north end of Seattle, you will find the hub of this ever-growing community: Jebena Cafe and its neighboring grocery store.
In this episode of Cooking in America, host Sheldon Simeon talks to siblings Martha Seyoum and Menge Ayele, who co-own both spaces. At the center of the offerings here is a warming injera — a perfected sourdough flatbread with a texture often defined as spongy. It’s a staple of Ethiopian cuisine, served with “toppings” such as beef and tilapia tibs, spinach, and kitfo, ground beef cooked in a berbere sauce and seasoned with chilies. “We do everything from our heart,” says Ayele. “That always pays off.”
Ayalew Mesfin’s Soulful Ethiopian Funk From The ’70s Is About To Get Its First Wide Release
With the amount of music that continues that gets released daily, it feels inevitable that there will be hidden gems that don’t get the shine they deserve. While this may seem like a modern problem, history has proven that this has actually been happening for a while.
Case in point: Ayalew Mesfin was part of an Ethiopian musical movement known as Ethio-Groove, a genre that combined the best parts of funk, soul, big-band jazz, Afrobeat, and traditional Ethiopian music. Mesfin’s work wasn’t really heard outside of the country, due in part to a tumultuous political climate marked by the Ethiopian Civil War that began in the mid-70s. Now, though, the best of Mesfin’s singles and tapes have been compiled for the first time ever and will be released as Hasabe: My Worries.
AFRICA IN FOCUS
AFRICANS REACT TO OFFENSIVE REMARKS BY US PRESIDENT TRUMP
This week, in the wake of derogatory remarks by President Donald Trump about African countries, Africans and their leaders have reacted strongly with outrage and disappointment. The African Union promptly released a statement demanding an apology, adding,
“The African Union Mission wishes to express its infuriation, disappointment, and outrage over the unfortunate comment made by Mr. Donald Trump, the President of the United States of America, which remarks dishonor the celebrated American creed and respect for diversity and human dignity.” The United Nations human rights office
labeled the remarks “shocking and shameful.” South Africa and Nigeria summoned American diplomats stationed in their countries, demanding an explanation for the comments. Botswana has called the remarks “irresponsible, reprehensible, and racist,” and cheekily demanded clarification on whether Botswana is included in his insulting
African Diplomats Invite Trump To
A.U. Meeting To Explain ‘Shithole’ Remark
African U.N. envoys suggested on Thursday that U.S. President Donald Trump meet with African leaders in Ethiopia this month after he was reported to have described some immigrants from Africa and Haiti as coming from “shithole” countries.
African U.N. ambassadors issued a statement last Friday that said they were “extremely appalled at, and strongly condemned the outrageous, racist, xenophobic remarks attributed to the president of the United States.”
They demanded Trump retract his remarks and apologize.
organization representing African countries has demanded that US President Donald Trump
apologies after he reportedly called nations on the continent "shitholes".
The African Union mission in Washington DC expressed its "shock, dismay and outrage" and said the Trump administration misunderstood Africans.
The US leader made the alleged remark in a Thursday meeting on immigration. But
Mr Trump has denied using the language reported. He has been backed by two Republicans who were at the White House meeting, but Democratic Senator Dick Durbin said Mr Trump called African countries "shitholes" several times and used "racist" language
What did the African Union say?
It said the "remarks dishonor the celebrated American creed and respect for diversity and human dignity".
It added: "While expressing our shock, dismay and outrage, the African Union strongly believes that there is a huge misunderstanding of the African continent and its people by the current Administration.
"There is a serious need for dialogue between the US Administration and the African countries."
Sudan, Ethiopia agree to deploy joint military forces to secure borders, GERD
Sudan and Ethiopia have agreed recently to deploy joint military forces to provide protection to their borders and the Ethiopian Grand Renaissance Dam (GERD).
According to the Sudan-based English-language media outlet the Sudan Tribune, military forces from the two countries will be deployed on both states’ borders for the sake of suspending any hostile activity against the two countries, in addition to protecting the GERD that is being built on the Blue Nile near Sudan.
The two provinces in Ethiopia and Sudan that will see the joint deployment of military forces are the ‘Blue Nile’ province in Sudan and Beni Shanqwl in Ethiopia
The predicament of Ethiopian immigrants in Saudi Arabia
January 18, 2018
socioeconomic overhaul which this paper will discuss in the following paragraphs, there is another reason why there has been a crackdown on Ethiopian undocumented immigrants in Saudi Arabia, namely a backlash on the political position of Ethiopia in the ongoing Gulf crisis. When the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and Egypt led a blockade against the state of Qatar, there was a push by these countries on the African countries to join the blockade. Some of the African countries succumbed to the pressure but most did not including Ethiopia. According to Sheik Mohammed bin Abdurrahman, the Foreign Minister of Qatar, “the four countries
mobilized all of their officials on the continent at the beginning of the blockade to pressure African states to adopt the same measures as them”.
Book review: The Addis Ababa Massacre, when Ethiopia ran blood Ian Campbell’s compelling, incisive account of one of the worst 20th century colonial atrocities that will forever stain the flag of Italy.
The killings were accompanied by loot. Italian Black shirts made trips to the bank to cash in the jewellery they seized from their victims. Upper-class
neighborhoods of Addis Ababa were spared only because Italians coveted the properties.
More than 19,000 Ethiopians were killed in Addis Ababa by the time the Italians had exhausted themselves. (Across Ethiopia, the figure is north of 30,000.) Eyewitnesses to the massacre gathered ample evidence, including photographs of Italians posing with severed heads of
Ethiopians. The British government’s behavior, in contrast to the solidarity and activism of its people, was a shameful coda to the story of Italy’s occupation of Ethiopia. Campbell delicately calls Churchill’s actions “curious”. But the unwillingness to see white Europeans prosecuted for crimes against black Ethiopians was in keeping with Churchill’s overall world view. He was an unabashed white supremacist who
mobilized his nation against Nazi Germany, and not, as his hagiographers relentlessly strive to portray him, a champion of universal freedom and neutral justice. An early advocate, by his own admission, of “using poisoned gas against
uncivilized tribes”, Churchill would have seen Graziani and Badoglio as kindred spirits, not embodiments of evil.
African immigrants are more educated than most — including people born in U.S
Ann M. Simmons Contact Reporter
Lots of the news from sub-Saharan Africa is about war, famine, poverty or political upheaval. So it’s understandable if many Americans think most Africans who immigrate to the United States are poorly educated and desperate.
That’s the impression that President Trump left with his comments to members of Congress opposing admission of immigrants from “shithole countries” in Africa and
elsewhere. But research tells another story. While many are refugees, large numbers are beneficiaries of the “diversity visa program” aimed at boosting immigration from underrepresented nations. And on average, African immigrants are better educated that people born in the U.S. or the immigrant population as a whole.
Egypt doesn’t want war with Sudan and Ethiopia: al-Sisi January 15, 2018 (CAIRO) - The Egyptian President Abdel-Fattah al-Sisi on Monday said his country isn’t conspiring against Sudan and Ethiopia stressing Egypt isn’t planning to go to war against its “brothers”.
Al-Sisi’s statements come amid rising tensions between Egypt on the one hand and Sudan and Ethiopia on the
other. The are several issues between Cairo and Khartoum including Sudan support to the Ethiopian renaissance dam, border dispute over Halayeb triangle and the ban on Egyptian farming products.
The latest tensions have sparked between Sudan and Egypt after the former signed an agreement to temporarily hand over the Red Sea island of Suakin to Turkey.
Sudan deploys troops to Eritrea border amid tension with Egypt
Sudan has deployed more forces on its border with Eritrea amid rising tension in the Red Sea region.
Foreign Minister Ibrahim Ghandour cited security threats on its eastern border.
“Sudan’s national army has sent forces to this area to protect Sudan’s security. We have information that some entities are targeting us,” he said after meeting his Ethiopian counterpart Workneh Gebeyehu in Khartoum on Sunday.
Earlier this month, Sudan closed its border with its eastern neighbor and sent troops to the frontier amid reports that Egypt had deployed troops in Eritrea. Khartoum also recalled its ambassador to Cairo following the reports.
A university professor has asked the leadership of Columbus, Ohio, to recruit more Somali police officers for better integration of local Somalis into the American community. In her new book, “Somalis in the Twin Cities and Columbus,” Stefanie Chambers, an associate professor of political science at Trinity College in Connecticut, says Somali migrants in Columbus don’t feel well-represented in many sectors of the society like their countrymen in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
“We can go a long way to better serve our new Americans. We can go a long way to breaking down barriers,” Chambers was quoted as saying by the Columbus Dispatch.
Chambers pointed out that the Minneapolis Police Department has seven Somali police officers, with several others in the academy, while Columbus has none.
H-1B VISA: President Trump Drops H-1B Visa Plan That Could Get At Least 750,000 Deported
In a relief for Indian techies, US authorities today said that the Trump administration is not considering any proposal that would force H-1B visa holders to leave the country.
The announcement by the US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) came days after reports emerged that the Trump administration was considering tightening H-1B visa rules that could lead to deportation of 750,000 Indians.
The reports hadsaid it was mulling ending extensions for H-1B holders.
The USCIS “is not considering a regulatory change that would force H-1B visa holders to leave the United States by changing interpretation of Section 104 C of the American Competitiveness in the 21st Century Act (AC21) statute that states that USCIS may grant the extensions,” an official said.
World’s Richest Man, Bill Gates Showers Praises On Ethiopian Scientist For Impacting Lives Of Small-scale Farmers
World’s richest man and CEO of Microsoft, Bill Gates, has hailed the efforts of an Ethiopian plant pathologist working to positively impact the lives of small-scale farmers across the world.
Dr. Segenet Kelemu according to Gates, having witnessed the damage locusts wreak in rural Ethiopia, aspired to study agriculture and today “used the power of science to find ways to help farmers grow more food and earn more income.”
In the latest installment of his ‘Heroes in the Field’ series, Gates said of Dr. Kelemu, “She decided to study agriculture, becoming the first woman from her region to get a college degree.
Ethiopia’s lawmakers approve ban on foreign adoptions
By Elias Meseret
ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia — Ethiopian lawmakers have approved a ban on
foreign adoptions amid concerns about mistreatment of children overseas.
The approval came after rare heated debate as some lawmakers worried that
the East African nation does not have enough child care centers to handle
the effects of the ban. Ethiopia had been among the top 10 countries for
adoptions in the United States, according to State Department figures
released last year. Actress Angelina Jolie is among the people who have
adopted a child from the country. For more reading : Breaking
the silence over the plight of adopted Ethiopian children
Ethiopia’s Renaissance Dam and its impact on Sudanese water security
By Saifeldin Yousif Saeed
National security no longer refers only to the power of the military state, but also to its economic strength and its ability to preserve its natural resources and development, particularly water. Therefore, the security of nations in the twenty-first century will depend on secure access to natural resources, energy and mineral resources and water and arable land resources. Global competition over natural resources will be a source of economic imbalance and disorder and will lead to the spread of instability, including in some cases the outbreak of armed conflicts.
Water and its impact on human life is one of the challenges facing mankind in this century. Water is one of the most important factors creating security. If a state blocked the flow of a river to another state or changed its course this would damage the interests and needs of the citizens of the other country. The decisions taken by the state in the use and regulation of water are important actions. Every water project or movement within a country translates as an assault on the other countries in the same river basin.
Ethiopia to free jailed politicians to 'foster national reconciliation' - PM
Aaron Maasho ADDIS ABABA (Reuters) - Ethiopia will release and pardon dissident politicians jailed on criminal charges, its prime minister said on Wednesday -- an unexpected shift in stance from a government routinely accused by rights groups of using security concerns to stifle dissent.
Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn, whose administration denies crushing peaceful opposition, said the move was intended to “foster national reconciliation”.
It follows recent protests over land rights and repression and ethnic clashes, and takes place amid a political crisis that has seen some senior officials submit resignations from the ruling party.
Ethiopian workers 'beaten and robbed' by Saudi police
28 DECEMBER 2017
Undocumented workers say they saw their compatriots shot at and wounded by police when they tried to escape roundups. Humiliated and abused Upon reaching Saudi Arabia, many work as domestic workers, often for more than 20 hours a day, with few legal rights.
According to rights groups, many have their phones and passports confiscated and endure physical and sexual abuse.
"I stayed in Saudi Arabia for five years just to support my family and other siblings," said deportee Fozia Omar, adding that she spent one month in prison but was allowed to bring her luggage.
"We have suffered a lot. I would like to beg my brothers and sisters not to repeat the mistake we already made, in the name of Allah."
Saudi Arabia has repeatedly said it will deport or jail the 400,000 or so Ethiopians it believes live there illegally, as it seeks to reduce its reliance on millions of foreign workers.
Eighty years ago a colonial massacre of over 20,000 people was carried out by Italian fascist forces in Ethiopia in north east Africa.
In three days and nights of arson, murder and looting, thousands of men, women and children were burned alive, shot, beaten senseless, stabbed to death or blown to pieces.
It has been systematically covered up in Italy—and so has Britain’s role in hiding the truth. A particularly vile role was played by Winston Churchill.
A recent book by Ian Campbell has revealed in terrifying detail what happened.
Italy, led by fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, had invaded Abyssinia (present day Ethiopia) in October 1935. Mussolini claimed it was a humanitarian intervention to wipe out slavery.
In fact he hoped it could be the beginning of a “new Roman empire”. Bruno Mussolini, son of Benito, wrote newspaper articles about clusters of Ethiopians “bursting open like a rose” when bombed from above. He admitted to finding this spectacle “most amusing”.
The young, educated and empowered women of Ethiopia have vowed to make a change to their
country’s culture of sexual harassment, rape and domestic violence. A group of young activists, who are among the few privileged women to graduate from university in Ethiopia and abroad, have set up a movement in the bid to empower women.
The Yellow Movement based in Ethiopia’s capital of Addis Ababa gives women a voice and shines a light on the shocking examples of abuse suffered by women.
For the first time in Ethiopia, the 2016 Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) included Domestic Violence as one of its indicators.
Based on the government’s survey, 35 per cent of all married women have experienced sexual, emotional or physical violence from their husband or partner at some time.
In 2015, a 15-year-old Ethiopian girl called Tejnesh Leweg’neh was abducted by three men. When she refused to marry one of them they pushed her off a cliff and she was left
Egypt's presidency spokesman Bassam Rady said on Sunday that Cairo is committed to a peaceful course in negotiations on the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD), though he reiterated that Egypt’s supply of Nile water is "a matter of life or death for the country."
"Egypt took a direct path in the negotiations, based on honesty, friendliness and mutual relations. We are still committed to this path," Rady told Ahram's Arabic news website.
The latest tripartite ministerial meeting between Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan held in Cairo last November to discuss a preliminary technical report on the impact of the dam had failed to reach a consensus.
On Thursday, Egyptian Foreign Ministry Spokesman Sameh Abu Zeid said that Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry is set to visit Addis Ababa next week to discuss specific ideas to overcome the stalemate in the GERD technical negotiations.
Ethiopia: Keep Peace to Keep Fast Pace
Peace has been central to the rapid pace of the economic growth registered over the last decade. In light of this, the violence which has been erupting at few towns and administrative districts in recent time serves no purpose other than obstructing the ongoing efforts of transforming the nation into a middle income economy.
For a country which has lifted itself from the abyss of extreme poverty, paying all kinds of sacrifices, such violence is highly likely to derail the hard-won gains. It erodes the age-old culture of respect among the diverse people and leads to loss of life and property. In fact, the past violence in some parts of the country has claimed the lives of citizens while posing destruction of property. If goes unchecked, if not stopped somewhere, it would undermine the national security and will degenerate into very unpleasant situation--may also cause a complete U-turn of the socio-economic development-- which is against the wishes of all Ethiopians and their lovers--God forbid that!
Ethiopia: Unveiling Mystery Crucial for Realizing Vision
By Tsegay Hagos
Tourism which is known as the smokeless industry has huge contribution to the economy of countries. It is an industry that could create jobs, generate foreign exchange and hugely supports the economy. According to World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) 2016 report, tourism has contributed USD 7.6 trillion (10.2 percent) of the world's GDP and created job opportunity for 292 million people, which accounts to 1 in 10 jobs created in the planet. European countries such as France, Spain, Italy and United Kingdom have been listed as top tourist destination nations in 2016
Ethiopia: Addis in the Eyes of African Youth Visitors
By Leulseged Worku
Peace and security are the major challenges of Africa. When there is peace and security there is prosperity. In this regard, the youth will be direct beneficiaries form the economy. More job opportunity will be created and they will in turn support their community.
The role of youth to speed up the socio economic and political life of a society is inevitable. This is especially true for the growing economy of Africa where the majority of the population is young.
Lesson from an Experiment in Ethiopia: An Economic Review of Arkabe Ogubay’s Case
Study Asayehgn Desta, Sarlo Distinguished Professor of Sustainable Development
A specter haunts Africa today. Those who subscribe to the Afro-pessimism school of thought argue that while African economies were ill-prepared to face the “free trade imperialism” of the 1850s, today’s Africa is even less equipped to survive in the new global economic order (Kofi and Desta 2008). Based on this line of thinking, for instance, Prunier (2016) attributes Africa’s lack of development due to lack of genuine citizenry. As he puts it, those in power attempt to enrich themselves at the expense of the people, and they continue the practice of the European colonialists, turning the people into subjects. Furthermore, Prunier notes that the lack of industrialization in Africa has deprived its youth of a better future and left it in a constant state of poverty and unemployment (The African Blog, July 23, 2016).
Ethiopia’s New Addiction – And What It Says About Media Freedom
By James Jeffrey
“Media freedom depends on which yardstick you use,” says Daniel Berhane, a prominent Addis Ababa-based blogger. “The government appears to be relaxing about online and television media, but there are still no opposition newspapers.”
Ethiopia ranked 150th out of 180 countries in the 2017 press freedom index rankings by Reporters Without Borders. The international non-profit organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and the press states that the Ethiopian regime systematically uses the country’s anti-terror law against journalists.
Ethiopia: Social Media Spreading Poison, Threatening Peace
By Zelalem Girma
In Ethiopia, something has gone very wrong with the use of social media. In most cases,
Face book, You Tube, and Twitter have turned out to be means of disseminating unfounded stories, wrong information, prejudice and falsehood.For over a century, people of Ethiopia have lived together building a
peaceful, harmonious and prosperous society with cultural amalgam and divers beliefs. They definitely espoused peaceful coexistence and cherished respect for each other until the evolution of social media began rocking down their tranquility and calm a decade ago.
The failure of the Ethiopian political opposition forces and civil society movements to act in unison on common ideals of national interest has enabled the dictatorship of the TPLF/EPRDF regime to persist in power through nearly three decades, thereby prolonging the multi facade misery of the Ethiopian people. The daily events in the entire nation are gripping stories of conflicts, death, destruction, looming famine, fear of disintegration and statelessness.
Failure to forge a generic national vision, a common program of action to translate the vision into a reality and the commitment to adhere to democratic principles agreed upon appears to have been the core factors that are hindering the realization of the cherished dream of a tormented nation. The heeding of these factors, by-and-large, rests on the shoulders of the organized elite, styled in the form of political or civil society assemblage. However, these different elite classes happen to be embroiled in unworthy squabbles some of which are indeed aged grudge against each other or sectarian ambitions, perhaps also ideological fixations, but certainly irrelevant as far as the national issue at stake is concerned.
Time and again I addressed and seriously underscored the significance of Ethiopian unity, because from day one since the ascendance of the EPRDF to power, I sensed a political program that could possibly undermine the unity of the Ethiopian people and subsequently the fragmentation of the Ethiopian nation-state. This concern of mine, shared by multitude of Ethiopians, was expressly stated in my debut book published twenty-two years ago, and it goes as
follows: The TGE’s policy of Kilil and self-determination is commendable, but the consequence of fragmentation as a result of new wave of ethnic political consciousness, and the inability of some minority nationalities to become economically and politically viable, would ultimately preoccupy Ethiopians to otherwise unforeseen problem.1
Here’s Why Russia Might Set Up a Red Sea Base in Sudan
By Andrew Korybko
Global Research, December 06, 2017
Long-serving Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir invited the Russian military into his country during his historic visit to Moscow last week, stating that Sudan needs protection from an American Hybrid War plot to “Balkanize” his rump state into five separate ones following the 2011 secession of South Sudan. In the course of the conversation, he also said that Sudan is requesting Russian assistance in upgrading its armed forces, and that the geostrategically positioned state could function as Moscow’s “key to Africa” if the two sides decide to take their partnership to the strategic level.
Sudan’s location is indeed a pivotal one because it’s located at the intersection of North and East Africa, and it also has crucial maritime-mainland connectivity potential due to its location on the western shores of the Red Sea and China’s New Silk Road plan to build a trans-Saharan railway from Port Sudan to the Chadian capital of N’Djamena in eventually facilitating trade between West Africa and the People’s Republic via this future route.
Zimbabwe's ex-President Robert Mugabe gave refuge to Col. Mengistu Haile Mariam, convicted of genocide in Ethiopia. Mugabe's departure has raised hopes that Haile Mariam could be extradited, but this is all uncertain.
Others were quick to demand the forced repatriation of Mengistu to Ethiopia, where they hope he can face justice. But such demands, even though genuine, seem sometimes to be mixed with sarcasm.
A tweet bearing the name Zirak Asfaw congratulates Mnangagwa on the peaceful power transition and pleads: “Please remember the mothers of #Ethiopia who are still waiting for justice: extradite #Mengistu Hailemariam.”
Another Twitter user under the name Deki sawa went further, urging Zimbabweans: “If #Zimbabweans are the kind of justice-loving people they claim to be, it is time to pressure their government to transfer the #genocidal #Ethiopian #dictator
#Mengistu Hailemariam …“
Is the Tigrai People’s Liberation Front a Communist Party? A Brief Review
Professor Desta, Asayehgn
Since the oust of the brutal socialist military dictatorship from power in 1991, a large portion of the Ethiopian people have desired and dreamed living in a democratic system of government rather than a communist-dominated government. The Ethiopian people wished their country’s democratic system would entertain 1) free and fair elections; 2) active participation of the Ethiopian citizens in politics and civic life; 3) protection of the human rights; and 4) the existence of rule of law, in which the laws and procedures of the country apply equally to all citizens (See for example, Stanford University, 2004).
New Rumblings In The Horn Of Africa Over Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam
by Tyler Durden Dec 6, 2017
Cairo recently reiterated its longstanding position that it’s against Addis Ababa’s construction of this megaproject on the Blue Nile river through which it receives most of its water, believing that the dam would allow Ethiopia to control downstream Egypt’s access to this resource and thus place it in a strategically vulnerable position. The Horn of African state hit back at the latest criticism by stating that it won’t be thwarted in carrying out this nationally important development project, and it also refuted the rumors which claimed that Qatar was partially funding the dam. Egypt’s latest infowar campaign against Ethiopia’s initiative is thought to be fueled in part by Sudan’s strategic realignment towards Addis Ababa in this dispute and more broadly in a larger Silk Road context, which has totally changed the dynamics and correspondingly placed Cairo on the defensive.
Israel firm’s spyware used against Ethiopia dissidents
December 6, 2017
Surveillance software from Israeli defence contractor Elbit Systems Ltd was used in an espionage campaign targeting Ethiopian dissidents living outside the East African nation, a Canadian research institute said today.
Citizen Lab, at the University of Toronto’s Munk School of Global Affairs, said it found evidence Ethiopian dissidents in Britain, the United States and other nations were targeted with emails seeking to infect their computers with surveillance tools that Elbit sells to law enforcement and intelligence agencies.
Citizen Lab, which helps human rights activists defend themselves against spy software, has previously reported on Israel malware being used against activists in the
UAE. An Elbit representative had no immediate comment on the group’s latest report. Ethiopian Communications Minister Negeri Lencho declined comment on the report.
CAIRO: Egypt has “many alternatives” to deal with the stalled technical negotiations on the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) with Ethiopia and Sudan, Egypt’s Minister of Water Resources and Irrigation Mohamed Abdel Ati has said.
“We have many alternatives in between the two impossible alternatives; to dispense with the Nile water and not to build the dams altogether," he said. There are other ways to negotiate, and Egypt has started many of these ways, but they cannot be declared,” the Egyptian minister said on Saturday during a visit to the northern governorate of Dakahlia.
Egypt's FM discusses regional developments, Ethiopian dam with Saudi counterpart
Egypt's Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry discussed Friday, among other issues, developments on the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) with his Saudi counterpart, Foreign Minister Adel Al-Jubeir, the Egyptian foreign ministry announced.
According to a statement issued by the foreign ministry, the two top diplomats met on the sidelines of the Euro-Mediterranean Dialogue held in Rome.Shoukry and Al-Jubeir discussed the latest developments in the region, especially in Syria, Lebanon, Yemen, Libya and the Qatar crisis.
Dr. Aberra Molla, a scientist and an inventor is also known as the father of Ethiopic. Inspired by the creator of the Amharic typewriter, Ethiopian engineer Ayana Birru of Horo Gudru, Wellega, Dr. Aberra computerized Ethiopic/Geez more than 29 years ago. However, replacing the Latin characters with Ethiopic character parts of the Amharic typewriter was not a viable option for Dr. Aberra because there were more Ethiopic characters than the Latin alphabet keys.
Egypt-Ethiopia tensions over new dam rise again
by Mohammed Vall Ethiopia is pushing on with construction of its massive new dam, despite growing objections from Egypt.The controversial project has strained relations between the two nations, because Egypt, which lies downstream, sees it as a risk to its water supply from the Blue Nile.
Al Jazeera's Mohammed Vall has visited the site of the $5bn project, which will one day be Africa's biggest hydroelectric dam.
Ethiopia: Will Mengistu Continue Enjoying Asylum Under Mnangagwa?
By Fred Oluoch
With the exit of Robert Mugabe, will the former Ethiopian dictator, Mengistu Haile Mariam, continue enjoying asylum in Zimbabwe?
That is the question that has been doing the rounds in Addis Ababa since November 14, when the military announced that it put his "protector"
Mr. Mugabe under house arrest after 37 years in power. The Ethiopians who experienced
Mr. Mengistu's 17 years of "Red Terror" reign are hoping that he will be the second former African president to be tried for international crimes after former Chad's Hissene
Habre. Mr Habre was sentenced to life in prison in June 2016 by the Extraordinary African Chambers sitting in Senegal after Macky Sall took over as president after years of protection by Abdoulaye Wade.
Now, most victims of Mengistu reign of terror are hoping that President Emmerson Mnangagwa will allow the extradition of Mr Mengistu after 26 years of protection by Mr Mugabe.
Elias Miseret, a journalist based in Addis Ababa, told The East African that some Ethiopians wish that Mr Mengistu would be brought back to account for his atrocities, having been sentenced to death in absentia by an Ethiopian court in 2008.
Ethiopia's Foreign Ministry spokesman on Thursday said construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance dam was a "matter of life or death for Ethiopia too".
Meles Alem's remarks in a press briefing in capital Addis Ababa came in a clear reaction to incessant reports by the Egyptian media quoting Egyptian President Abdel-Fattah al-Sisi as saying that Nile was a matter of life or death to Egypt -- an Egyptian catchword which al-Sisi repeated at a recent inauguration of a fishery in Egypt.
Alem dubbed as "irrelevant" what he described as "destructive reports being disseminated by some Egyptian media and institutions against the Ethiopian Grand Renaissance Dam".
Ethiopian Grand Renaissance Dam progressing to near completion -Nov 2017
Ethiopia said on Saturday no amount of misunderstanding would compel it to halt construction of the $4.8 billion mega hydro dam project on River Nile.
Seleshi Bekele, the Ethiopian minister of water, electricity and irrigation, said the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) has completed 63 percent of its construction and soon it will be generating electricity.
He was speaking at a news conference at his office in the capital Addis Ababa.
His remarks came amidst heightening tensions between Ethiopia and Egypt. Last month, a meeting of water ministers from Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan in Cairo ended, without reaching an agreement on the "inception report" put forth by the international consultants -- BRL and Artelia -- hired by the three countries to study the impact of the dam.
It has been six years since Ethiopia launched the GERD project, near the Ethiopia-Sudan border.
Ethiopia to go ahead with multi-billion dollar Nile dam
60 percent construction of Renaissance dam has been completed, says Ethiopian water ministers
By Addis Getachew ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia
Ethiopia said on Saturday no amount of misunderstanding would compel it to halt construction of the $4.8 billion mega hydro dam project on River Nile.
Seleshi Bekele, the Ethiopian minister of water, electricity and irrigation, said the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) has completed 63 percent of its construction and soon it will be generating electricity.
He was speaking at a news conference at his office in the capital Addis Ababa. His
remarks came amidst heightening tensions between Ethiopia and Egypt. Last month, a meeting of water ministers from Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan in Cairo ended, without reaching an agreement on the "inception report" put forth by the international consultants -- BRL and Artelia -- hired by the three countries to study the impact of the dam.
It has been six years since Ethiopia launched the GERD project, near the Ethiopia-Sudan
border. Ever since this latest unsuccessful meeting, there has been strong word coming from the Egyptian side.
During Mugabe’s 37 years in office, the former president is believed to have amassed a huge fortune. The question everyone is asking is will impoverished Zimbabweans will ever see the money again?
It is not known exactly how much the geriatric former head of state and his family are worth. Estimates put the figure at around 844 million euros. In addition to a 25-bedroom house in Zimbabwe's capital Harare that's valued at 8.5 million euros, Mugabe owns a luxury villa in Hong Kong worth more than 4 million euros. It is allegedly one of his wife Grace's favorite properties. His most valuable property is Hamilton Palace in Sussex, England, worth more than 40 million
euros. Cases from other countries show how difficult and tedious this proc
Promotion of good governance and corruption as a constant melody
Ethiopian Observer editorial:
This editorial, first and foremost, likes to acknowledge Abel’s initiative of the Pal Talk on good governance and corruption titled “To complement and support the efforts of the Administration of the Tigray Region that is currently undertaking promotion of good governance.” I listened to your panel interview with interest and stopped all other things to digest what has been shared from two veterans and concerned citizens of your audience. There was no time lost; fear and bitterness has no place on national concern; however the lip service excuses must not be celebrated and promoted. The price for not speaking up or for hesitation has been enormous, and I challenge everyTigrean who claims underlying love to put his/her words in action. We have to stay true to ourselves; justice is what the Tigrean people are demanding.
The Egyptian Air Force is the 4th largest F-16 operator in the world, mustering about 195 F-16s of 220 ordered. Their overall fighter fleet is a mix of high-end F-16s and Mirage 2000s, low-end Chinese F-7s (MiG-21 copy) bought from the Chinese, a few F-4 Phantom II jets, and upgraded but very aged Soviet MiG-21s and French Mirage 5s
Coming down the mountain
Heavy rucksack on my back
Exhausted and downcast
I saw two butterflies
With wings of bright blue
And spots of yellow hue
Like large eyes on the wings
They chased each other
Round and round the bush
Caught up in the dance of life
In the bright afternoon sun
Nonchalant and carefree...
Suddenly my load lightened
I lifted my eyes up
To the mountain top
Serene, sacred, beautiful... G. E. Gorfu 11-24-18
For Interpretation Services of Ethiopian Languages
(Tigrinya, Amharic) please contact the Institute of Development and Education for Africa (IDEA) by calling 203-747-2763 or writing via
Book Launching and Discussion on Contemporary Ethiopi
Institute of Development and Education for Africa (IDEA) is proud to
announce the launching of Dr. Ghelawdewos Araia’s book, Ethiopia:
Democracy, Devolution ofPower, and The Developmental State
in Washington DC on June 28, 2014.
encourages all Ethiopians and scholars on Ethiopia in the Washington DC
Metro Area to join the fascinating discussion on contemporary Ethiopia.
Professor Haile Gerima will introduce the book signing ceremony and Dr.
Araia will engage the audience in a lively and interactive intellectual
Sanfoka Video and Books, 2714 Georgia Ave, Washington DC 20001
Professor Jemal Abdulkadir
Elias S Siraj, Ahmed Reja, and Solomon Tesfaye
On Saturday August 24th, 2013, the world diabetes community lost Professor Jemal Abdulkadir, a pioneer
of diabetes care in his native country, Ethiopia and theAfrican continent.
Socialist wins seat on Seattle city council
November 16, 2013
Seattle voters have elected a socialist to city council for the first time in modern history. Kshama Sawant, a member of the populist Occupy Seattle movement, ran on a platform of raising Washington State’s minimum wage to $15 and levying a “millionaire tax” to pay for mass transit and public education.
It was devastating news on Wednesday, October 10, 2013, to learn that Ato Bekele Berhane, an alumni and one of the original founders of the Queen Sheba School, Adwa, Tigrai, Ethiopia, has passed away, surrounded by his brothers, sisters, children, and a number of friends.
Yohannes IV of Ethiopia crowned January 12 Born
the son of Mercha the Shum of Tembien and his wife Woizero Silass Dimtsu (Amata
Selassie) of Enderta, Dejazmatch Kassai could claim Solomonic
blood through the line of his paternal grandmother
Queen Sheba Schools
Alumni Association and Friends - International is holding a fundraising
event in Dallas Chapter
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